Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 75, Issue 8, pp 4285–4303 | Cite as

Hiding depth information in compressed 2D image/video using reversible watermarking

  • Wenyi Wang
  • Jiying Zhao


In this paper, a novel joint coding scheme is proposed for 3D media content including stereo images and multiview-plus-depth (MVD) video for the purpose of depth information hiding. The depth information is an image or image channel which reveals the distance of scene objects’ surfaces from a viewpoint. With the concern of copyright protection, access control and coding efficiency for 3D content, we propose to hide the depth information into the texture image/video by a reversible watermarking algorithm called Quantized DCT Expansion (QDCTE). Considering the crucial importance of depth information for depth-image-based rendering (DIBR), full resolution depth image/video is compressed and embedded into the texture image/video, and it can be extracted without extra quality degradation other than compression itself. The reversibility of the proposed algorithm guarantees that texture image/video quality will not suffer from the watermarking process even if high payload (i.e. depth information) is embedded into the cover image/video. In order to control the size increase of watermarked image/video, the embedding function is carefully selected and the entropy coding process is also customized according to watermarking strength. Huffman and content-adaptive variable-length coding (CAVLC), which are respectively used for JPEG image and H.264 video entropy encoding, are analyzed and customized. After depth information embedding, we propose a new method to update the entropy codeword table with high efficiency and low computational complexity according to watermark embedding strength. By using our proposed coding scheme, the depth information can be hidden into the compressed texture image/video with little bitstream size overhead while the quality degradation of original cover image/video from watermarking can be completely removed at the receiver side.


MVD Stereo images Reversible watermarking Depth information Customized entropy coding 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Electrical Engineering and Computer ScienceUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada

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