Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 75, Issue 2, pp 935–959 | Cite as

Human facial expression recognition using curvelet feature extraction and normalized mutual information feature selection

  • Muhammad Hameed Siddiqi
  • Rahman Ali
  • Muhammad Idris
  • Adil Mehmood Khan
  • Eun Soo Kim
  • Min Cheol Whang
  • Sungyoung Lee


To recognize expressions accurately, facial expression systems require robust feature extraction and feature selection methods. In this paper, a normalized mutual information based feature selection technique is proposed for FER systems. The technique is derived from an existing method, that is, the max-relevance and min-redundancy (mRMR) method. We, however, propose to normalize the mutual information used in this method so that the domination of the relevance or of the redundancy can be eliminated. For feature extraction, curvelet transform is used. After the feature extraction and selection the feature space is reduced by employing linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Finally, hidden Markov model (HMM) is used to recognize the expressions. The proposed FER system (CNF-FER) is validated using four publicly available standard datasets. For each dataset, 10-fold cross validation scheme is utilized. CNF-FER outperformed the existing well-known statistical and state-of-the-art methods by achieving a weighted average recognition rate of 99 % across all the datasets.


Facial Expressions Curvelet Transform Mutual Information Minimal Redundancy Maximal Relevance 



This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2013-067321)).

This research was also supported by the MSIP (Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning), Korea, under the ITRC (Information Technology Research Center) support program supervised by the NIPA (National IT Industry Promotion Agency) (NIPA-2014-(H0301-14-1003).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Hameed Siddiqi
    • 1
  • Rahman Ali
    • 1
  • Muhammad Idris
    • 1
  • Adil Mehmood Khan
    • 2
  • Eun Soo Kim
    • 3
  • Min Cheol Whang
    • 4
  • Sungyoung Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer EngineeringKyung Hee UniversitySuwonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Division of Information and Computer EngineeringAjou UniversitySuwonRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Electronic EngineeringKwangwoon UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Division of Digital Media EngineeringSang-Myung UniversitySuwonRepublic of Korea

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