Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 74, Issue 11, pp 3783–3798 | Cite as

Fourier irregularity index: A new approach to measure tumor mass irregularity in breast mammogram images

  • Gensheng Zhang
  • Wei WangEmail author
  • Sung Shin
  • Carrie B. Hruska
  • Seong-Ho Son


Shape descriptors have been identified as important features in distinguishing malignant masses from benign masses. Thus, an effective morphological irregularity measure could provide a helpful reference to indicate the likelihood of malignancy of breast masses. In this paper, a new Fourier-Transform-based measure of irregularity—Fourier Irregularity Index (F 2 ), is proposed to provide reliable malignant/benign tumor/mass classification. The proposed measure has been evaluated on 418 breast masses, including 190 malignant masses and 218 benign lesions identified by radiologists on film mammograms. The results show the proposed measure has better performance than other approaches, such as Compactness Index (CI), Fractal Dimension (FD) and the Fourier-descriptor-based shape Factor (FF). Furthermore, these mentioned measures are paired to investigate the possibility of performance improvement. The results showed the combination of F 2 and CI further enhances the performance in indicating the likelihood of malignancy of breast masses.


Breast masses classification Contour analysis Fourier Transform Irregularity index 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gensheng Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Wei Wang
    • 3
    Email author
  • Sung Shin
    • 3
  • Carrie B. Hruska
    • 4
  • Seong-Ho Son
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringUniversity of Texas at ArlingtonArlingtonUSA
  2. 2.South Dakota State UniversityBrookingsUSA
  3. 3.Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer ScienceSouth Dakota State UniversityBrookingsUSA
  4. 4.Department of RadiologyMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  5. 5.Radio Technology Research DepartmentElectronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI)DaejeonKorea

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