Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 73, Issue 3, pp 1983–2008 | Cite as

Improving retrieval accuracy of Hierarchical Cellular Trees for generic metric spaces

  • Carles VenturaEmail author
  • Verónica Vilaplana
  • Xavier Giró-i-Nieto
  • Ferran Marqués


Metric Access Methods (MAMs) are indexing techniques which allow working in generic metric spaces. Therefore, MAMs are specially useful for Content-Based Image Retrieval systems based on features which use non L p norms as similarity measures. MAMs naturally allow the design of image browsers due to their inherent hierarchical structure. The Hierarchical Cellular Tree (HCT), a MAM-based indexing technique, provides the starting point of our work. In this paper, we describe some limitations detected in the original formulation of the HCT and propose some modifications to both the index building and the search algorithm. First, the covering radius, which is defined as the distance from the representative to the furthest element in a node, may not cover all the elements belonging to the node’s subtree. Therefore, we propose to redefine the covering radius as the distance from the representative to the furthest element in the node’s subtree. This new definition is essential to guarantee a correct construction of the HCT. Second, the proposed Progressive Query retrieval scheme can be redesigned to perform the nearest neighbor operation in a more efficient way. We propose a new retrieval scheme which takes advantage of the benefits of the search algorithm used in the index building. Furthermore, while the evaluation of the HCT in the original work was only subjective, we propose an objective evaluation based on two aspects which are crucial in any approximate search algorithm: the retrieval time and the retrieval accuracy. Finally, we illustrate the usefulness of the proposal by presenting some actual applications.


Multimedia retrieval Content-based image retrieval Indexing techniques Metric access methods Hierarchical cellular tree 



This work was partially founded by the Catalan Broadcasting Corporation through the Spanish project CENIT-2009-1026 BuscaMedia, by TEC2010-18094 MuViPro project of the Spanish Government, and by FPU-2010 Research Fellowship Program of the Spanish Ministry of Education.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carles Ventura
    • 1
    Email author
  • Verónica Vilaplana
    • 1
  • Xavier Giró-i-Nieto
    • 1
  • Ferran Marqués
    • 1
  1. 1.Technical University of Catalonia (UPC)BarcelonaSpain

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