Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 73, Issue 3, pp 1687–1707 | Cite as

Authenticating topological integrity of process plant models through digital watermarking

  • Zhiyong Su
  • Lang Zhou
  • Guangjie Liu
  • Jianshou KongEmail author
  • Yuewei Dai


Process plant models, which feature their intrinsical complex topological relation, are important industrial art works in the field of Computer-Aided Design (CAD). This paper investigates the topology authentication problem for process plant models. Compared with the widely studied watermarking based geometrical information protection and authentication techniques for traditional mechanical CAD drawings, topology authentication is still in its infancy and offers very interesting potentials for improvements. A semi-fragile watermarking based algorithm is proposed to address this interesting issue in this paper. We encode the topological relation among joint plant components into the watermark bits based on the hamming code. A subset of the model’s connection points are selected as mark points for watermark embedding. Then those topology sensitive watermark bits are embedded into selected mark points via bit substitution. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that our approach yields a strong ability in detecting and locating malicious topology attacks while achieves robustness against various non-malicious attacks.


Watermarking Semi-fragile watermarking Topology authentication Topological integrity  Process plant model Connection points 



This work is supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO.61170250, NO.61103201). The models used in this paper are the courtesy of Beijing Zhongke Fulong Computer Technology Co., Ltd. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the helpful comments and suggestions of the reviewers, which have improved the presentation.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhiyong Su
    • 1
  • Lang Zhou
    • 2
  • Guangjie Liu
    • 1
  • Jianshou Kong
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yuewei Dai
    • 1
  1. 1.School of AutomationNanjing University of Science and TechnologyNanjingChina
  2. 2.School of Information EngineeringNanjing University of Finance and EconomicsNanjingChina

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