Polyline curvatures based robust vector data hashing
- 207 Downloads
The growth in applications for vector data such as CAD design drawings and GIS digital maps has increased the requirements for authentication, copy detection, and retrieval of vector data. Vector data hashing is one of the main techniques for meeting these requirements. Its design must be robust, secure, and unique, which is similar to image or video hashing. This paper presents a vector data hashing method based on the polyline curvature for design drawings and digital maps. Our hashing method extracts the feature values by projecting the polyline curvatures, which are obtained from groups of vector data using GMM clustering, onto random values, before generating the final binary hash by binarization. A robustness evaluation showed that our hashing method had a very low false detection probability during geometrical modifications, rearrangements, and similar transformations of objects and layers. A security evaluation based on differential entropy showed that the level of uncertainty was very high with our hashing method. Furthermore, a uniqueness evaluation showed that the Hamming distances between hashes were very low.
KeywordsVector data model Content hashing Authentication Copy detection Design drawing Digital map
This work was supported by the Korea Research Foundation Grant funded by the Korean Government (MEST) (KRF-2009- 0071269 and KRF-2011-0023118).
- 2.AutoCAD (2011) http://www.autodesk.com. Accessed 26 Dec 2011
- 3.Bilmes JA (1998) A gentle tutorial on the em algorithm and its application to parameter estimation for Gaussian mixture and hidden Markov models. Tech. Rep. TR-97-021, International Computer Science InstituteGoogle Scholar
- 4.Chang K (2007) Introduction to geographic information system, 4th edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 5.Chen Y, Gupta MR (2010) EM demystified: an expectation-maximization tutorial. UWEE Technical Report, Number UWEETR-2010-0002Google Scholar
- 8.Differential Geometry of Curves (2011) http://en.wikipedia.org. Accessed 26 Dec 2011
- 9.Farin G, Hoschek J, Kim M-S (2002) Handbook of computer aided geometric design. Elsevier ScienceGoogle Scholar
- 10.Kreyszig E (1991) Differential geometry. Dover, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 14.Lee S-H, Lee E-J, Kwon K-R (2010) Robust 3D mesh hashing based on shape features. In: IEEE international conference on multimedia and expo, pp 1040–1043Google Scholar
- 18.National Geographic Information Institute (2011) http://www.ngi.go.kr. Accessed 26 Dec 2011
- 20.Ohbuchi R, Ueda H, Endoh S (2002) Robust watermarking of vector digital maps. In: Proc. of IEEE international conference on multimedia and expo (ICME), vol 1, pp 577–580Google Scholar
- 25.Vogit M, Busch C (2002) Watermarking 2D-vector data for geographical information systems. In: Proc. of the SPIE, security and watermarking of multimedia content, San Jose, USA, vol 4675, pp 621–628Google Scholar