Advertisement

Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 73, Issue 3, pp 1487–1506 | Cite as

Quantitative steganalysis of spatial ±1 steganography in JPEG decompressed images

  • Xing LiEmail author
  • Tao Zhang
  • Yan Zhang
  • Wenxiang Li
  • Xijian Ping
Article

Abstract

On the basis of the analysis of JPEG error and stegonoise, we propose a novel quantitative steganalyzer for spatial ±1 steganography in JPEG decompressed images. First, we present a particular theoretical argument that the cover images, which are originally stored in JPEG format, can be approximately estimated through JPEG recompression with the detected quantization table. Then, on the basis of the relationship between the message embedding rate and the variance of the stegonoise in the discrete cosine transformation (DCT) domain, we construct a polynomial regression model to estimate the secret message length. The extensive experimental results show that the proposed scheme is computationally feasible and that it significantly outperforms the existing state-of-the-art estimators, especially for the images with high quality factors and embedding rates. The order of magnitude of the prediction error using the proposed scheme can remain in the 10−4 range, as measured by the median absolute difference. Moreover, our estimator is stable and robust with respect to the embedding rate and quality factor.

Keywords

Information hiding; Image Steganography Quantitative Steganalysis LSB matching JPEG decompressed images 

Abbreviations

DCT

Discrete Cosine Transform

LSB

Least Significant Bit

RS

Regular and Singular

HCF-COM

The Center of the Mass of the Histogram Characteristic Function

AHCF-COM

The Center Of the Mass of the Adjacency Histogram Characteristic Function

ALE

The amplitude of local extrema

i.i.d.

Independent identically distributed

MAE

Mean absolute error

MAD

Median absolute difference

IQR

Interquartile range

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 60903221, No. 61272490) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (“863” Program, No. 2011AA010603, No. 2011AA010605). The authors would like to thank the reviewers for their insightful comments and helpful suggestions.

References

  1. 1.
    Bas P, Furon T (2007) BOWS-2 [Online]. http://bows2.gipsa-lab.inpg.fr. Accessed May 11 2010
  2. 2.
    Böhme R (2008) Weighted stego-image steganalysis for JPEG covers. In: Proceedings of 10th International Workshop on Information Hiding, Springer LNCS, 5284: 178–194. doi:  10.1007/978-3-540-88961-8_13
  3. 3.
    Doёrr G Image database for steganalysis studies [Online]. http://www.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/I.Cox/Content/Downloads.html. Accessed May 11 2009
  4. 4.
    Dumitrescu S, Wu X, Wang Z (2003) Detection of LSB steganography via sample pair analysis. IEEE Trans Signal Process 51(7):1995–2007. doi: 10.1109/TSP.2003.812753 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fan Z, de Queiroz R (2003) Identification of bitmap compression history: JPEG detection and quantizer estimation. IEEE Trans Image Process 12(2):230–235. doi: 10.1109/TIP.2002.807361 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fridrich J, Goljan M, Du R (2001) Detecting LSB steganography in color and gray-scale images. IEEE Multimedia 8(4):22–28. doi: 10.1109/93.959097 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fridrich J, Goljan M, Du R (2001) Steganalysis based on JPEG compatibility. In: Proceedings of Special Session on Theoretical and Practical Issues in Digital Watermarking and Data Hiding, Multimedia Systems and Applications IV, pp 275–280Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fridrich J, Soukal D, Goljan M (2005) Maximum likelihood estimation of secret message length embedded using ±k steganography in spatial domain. In Proceedings of the SPIE, Electronic Imaging, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VII, San Jose, CA, 5681: 595–606Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fu D, Shi Y Q, Su W (2007) A generalized benford’s law for JPEG coefficients and its applications in image forensics. In: Proceedings of the SPIE Electronic Imaging, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents IX, E. J. Delp and P. W. Wong, Eds., San Jose, CA, 6505: 1L1-1L11Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Harmsen J, Pearlman W (2003) Steganalysis of additive noise modelable information hiding. In Proceedings of the SPIE, Electronic Imaging, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents V, Sa-nta Clara, CA, 5020: 131–142Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Huang HC, Chu SC, Pan JS, Huang CY, Liao BY (2011) Tabu search based multi-watermarks embedding algorithm with multiple description coding. Inform Sci 181(16):3379–3396. doi: 10.1016/j.ins.2011.04.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Huang HC, Fang WC (2010) Metadata-based image watermarking for copyright protection. Simul Model Pract Theory 18(4):436–445. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2011.03.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ker AD (2005) Steganalysis of LSB matching in grayscale images. IEEE Signal Process Lett 12(6):441–444. doi: 10.1109/LSP.2005.847889 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Li X, Zhang T, Zhang Y, Li WX, Li KD (2012) A novel blind detector for additive noise steganography in JPEG decompressed images. Multimedia Tools and Applications. doi: 10.1007/s11042-012-1112-2
  15. 15.
    Loukhaoukha K (2012) On the security of digital watermarking scheme based on singular value decomposition and tiny genetic algorithm. J Inf Hiding Multimedia Signal Process 3(2):135–141Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Luo WQ, Huang FJ, Huang JW (2010) JPEG error analysis and its applications to digital image forensics. IEEE Trans Inf Forensic Secur 5(3):480–491. doi: 10.1109/TIFS.2010. 2051426 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Luo WQ, Wang Y, Huang JW (2011) Security analysis on spatial ±1 steganography for JPEG decompressed images. IEEE Signal Process Lett 18(1):39–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    NRCS Photo Gallery [Online]. http://photogallery.nrcs.usda.gov/. Accessed August 22 2009
  19. 19.
    Petitcolas FAP, Anderson RJ, Kuhn MG (1999) Information hiding-a survey. In: Proceedings of the IEEE, 87(7): 1062–1078. doi: S 0018-9219(99)04946-4Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pevný T, Fridrich J, Ker AD (2012) From blind to quantitative steganalysis. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security 7(2):445–454. doi: 10.1109/TIFS.2011.2175918 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schaefer G, Stich M (2003) UCID: An uncompressed color image database. In Proceedings of the SPIE, Electronic Imaging, Storage and Retrieval Methods and Applications for Multimedia. 5307: 472–480Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sharp T (2001) An implementation of key-based digital signal steganography. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Information Hiding, Springer LNCS, 2137: 13–26. doi: 10.1007/3-540-45496-9_2
  23. 23.
    Zhang J, Cox IJ, Doёrr G (2007) Steganalysis for LSB matching in images with high-frequency noise. In: Proc. IEEE 9th Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing, pp. 385–388. doi: 10.1109/MMSP.2007.4412897
  24. 24.
    Zhang T, Li WX, Zhang Y, Zheng EG, Ping XJ (2010) Steganalysis of LSB matching based on statistical modeling of pixel difference distributions. Information Sciences 180:4685–4694. doi: 10.1016/j.ins.2010.07.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhang T, Ping XJ (2003) A new approach to reliable detection of LSB steganography in natural images. Signal Process 83(10):2085–2093. doi: 10.1016/S0165-1684(03)00169-5 CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhang J, Zhang D (2010) Detection of LSB matching steganography in decompressed images. IEEE Signal Process Lett 17(2):141–144. doi: 10.1109/LSP.2009.2035379 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zheng EG, Ping XJ, Zhang T (2011) Local linear transform and new features of histogram characteristic functions for steganalysis of least significant bit matching steganography. KSII Trans Internet Inf Syst 5(4):840–855. doi: 10.3837/tiis.2011.04.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhu X, Chen Y (2012) Performance analysis of dither modulation against composite attacks. J Inf Hiding Multimedia Signal Process 3(2):164–175Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xing Li
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tao Zhang
    • 1
  • Yan Zhang
    • 2
  • Wenxiang Li
    • 1
  • Xijian Ping
    • 1
  1. 1.Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology InstituteZhengzhouChina
  2. 2.Zhengzhou University of Light IndustryZhengzhouChina

Personalised recommendations