Advertisement

Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 73, Issue 3, pp 1897–1912 | Cite as

A dual transform audio watermarking algorithm

  • Ali Al-HajEmail author
Article

Abstract

In this paper, a non-blind digital audio watermarking algorithm that satisfies the minimum requirements of optimal audio watermarking set by the International Federation of Photographic Industry (IFPI), is proposed. The algorithm does not degrade perception of audio, offers an SNR value of more than 44 dB, offers around 1387 bps data payload, and it is robust against common audio processing operations such as Gaussian noise addition, MP3 compression, re-quantization, re-sampling, echo, low-pass, high-pass, and band-pass filtering. The IFPI requirements were met by the proposed algorithm as it exploits the attractive properties of two powerful mathematical transforms; the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), and the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). DWT is applied to achieve robustness as it decomposes the original audio signal in such a way to scatter watermark bits throughout the signal. SVD provides imperceptibility to the proposed algorithm by embedding watermark bits onto the diagonal singular values of the S matrix produced by SVD. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated by a set of experiments using pop, instrumental, and speech audio scripts.

Keywords

Audio watermarking Copyright protection Discrete wavelet transform Singular value decomposition Imperceptibility Robustness Data payload 

References

  1. 1.
    Abd El-Samie F (2009) An efficient singular value decomposition algorithm for digital audio watermarking. Int J Speech Technol 21:27–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Acevedo A (2003) Digital watermarking for audio data in techniques and applications of digital watermarking and content protection. Artech House, USA, pp 75–114Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Akhaee M, Saberian M, Feizi S, Marvasti F (2009) Robust audio data hiding using correlated quantization with histogram-based detector. IEEE Transact Multimed 11(5):834–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Al-Haj A, Mohammad A (2010A) Digital audio watermarking based on the discrete wavelets transform and singular value decomposition. European J Sci Res 39(1):6–21Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Al-Haj A, Twal C, Mohammad A (2010B) Hybrid DWT-SVD audio watermarking. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Digital Information Management., pp 525–529Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Andrews H, Patterson C (1976) Singular value decomposition (SVD) image coding. IEEE T Commun 42(4):425–432Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arnold M, Wolthusen S, Schmucker M (2003) Techniques and applications of digital watermarking and content protection. Artech House. Zwicker E, Fastl H. Psychoacoustics: Facts and models. Springer-VerlagGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bao P, Ma X (2004) MP3-Resistant music steganography based on dynamic range transform. Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communication Systems; 266–271Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Basso A, Bergadano F, Cavagnino D, Pomponiu V, Vernone A (2009) A novel block-based watermarking scheme using the SVD transform. Algorithms 2(1):46–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bhat KV, Sengupta I, Das A (2010) An adaptive audio watermarking based on the singular value decomposition in the wavelet domain. Digit Signal Process 20:1547–1558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bhat KV, Sengupta I, Das A (2011a) A new audio watermarking scheme based singular value decomposition and quantization. Circuit Syst Signal Process 30:915–927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bhat KV, Sengupta I, Das A (2011b) An audio watermarking scheme using singular value decomposition and dither-modulation quantization. Multimed Tools Appl 52:369–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chang C, Tsai P, Lin C (2005) SVD-based digital image watermarking scheme. Pattern Recog Lett 26(10):1577–1586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chang C, Shen W, Wang H (2006) Using counter-propagation neural network for robust digital audio watermarking in DWT domain. IEEE Int Conf Syst Man Cybern 2:1214–1219Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cheng S, Yu H, Xiong Z (2002) Enhanced spread spectrum watermarking of MPEG-2 AAC. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 3728–3731Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cox I, Kilian J, Leighton T, Shamoon T (1997) Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia. IEEE Transact Image Process 6(12):1673–1687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cvejic N, Seppanen T (2004) Spread spectrum watermarking using frequency hopping and attack characterization. Signal Process 84(1):207–213CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dutta M, Pathak V, Gupta P (2010a). An adaptive robust watermarking algorithm for audio signals using SVD. In: Gavrilova M, et al (eds), Transactions on computer science. NLCS 6340: 131–153, Springer-VerlagGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dutta M, Pathak V, Gupta P (2010b) A robust watermarking algorithm for audio signals using SVD. In: Ranka S, et. al. (eds), CCIS 94 (Part I): 84–93, Springer-VerlagGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Erelebi E, Bataki L (2009) Audio watermarking scheme based on embedding strategy in low frequency components with a binary image. Digi Signal Process 19(2):265–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fallahpour M, Megias D (2011) High capacity audio watermarking using the high frequency band of the wavelet domain. Multimedia Tools and Applications 52:485–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fallahpour M, Perez-Megias D (2009) High capacity audio watermarking using FFT amplitude interpolation. IEICE Electron Express 6(14):1057–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fan M, Wang H (2009) Chaos-based discrete fractional Sine transform domain audio watermarking scheme. Comput Electr Eng 35(3):506–516CrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Grody J, Brutun L (2000) Performance evaluation of digital audio watermarking algorithms. The 43rd IEEE Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 456–459Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hsieh M, Tseng D, Huang Y (2001) Hiding digital watermarks using multiresolution wavelet transform. IEEE Transact Indus Electron 48(5):875–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kalantari N, Akhaee M, Ahadi S, Feizi S, Amindavar H (2009) Robust multiplicative patchwork method for audio watermarking. IEEE Trans Audio Speech Lang Process 17(6):1133–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kardamis J (2007) Audio watermarking techniques using singular value decomposition. Unpublished master dissertation, Rochester Institute of Technology, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Katzenbeisser S, Petitcloas F (2000) Information hiding techniques for steganography and digital watermarking. Artech House, USAGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kim H, Choi Y (2003) A novel echo-hiding scheme with backward and forward kernels. IEEE Trans Circ Syst Video Technol 13(8):885–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kirovski D, Malvar H (2003) Spread spectrum watermarking of audio signals. IEEE Trans Signal Process 51(4):1020–1033CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ko B-S, Nishimura R, Suzuki Y (2005). Time-spread echo method for digital audio watermarking. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia 7(2):212–221Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lalitha N et al (2011) Improved audio watermarking using DWT-SVD. Int Journal Sci Eng Res 2(6):1–7Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lerch A (2002) Zplane development, EAQUAL—Evaluate Audio QUALity, version:0.1.3alpha. http://www.mp3-tech.org/programmer/misc.html
  34. 34.
    Li X, Yu H (2000) Transparent and robust audio data hiding in sub-band domain. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing, 74–79Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Li X, Zhang M, Sun L (2003) Adaptive audio watermarking algorithm based on SNR in wavelet domain. International Conference on Natural Language Processing and Knowledge Engineering, 287–292Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Liu R, Tan T (2002) An SVD-based watermarking scheme for protecting rightful ownership. IEEE Transact Multimed 4(1):121–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Malik H, Ansari R, Khokhar A (2008) Robust audio watermarking using frequency-selective spread spectrum. IET Info Secur 2(4):129–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mohammad A, Al-Haj A, Shaltaf S (2008) An improved SVD-based watermarking scheme for protecting rightful ownership. Signal Process J 88(9):2158–2180CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Neubauer C, Herre J (2000) Audio watermarking of MPEG-2 AAC bit streams. Proceedings of the Audio Engineering Society ConventionGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ozer H, Sankur B, Memon N (2005) An SVD-based audio watermarking technique. ACM workshop on Multimedia and Security, 51–56Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Peng H, Wang J, Zhang Z (2011) Audio watermarking scheme robust against desynchronization attacks based on kernel clustering. Multimed Tool Appl 3:1–14Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sehirli M, Gurgen F, Ikizoglu S (2004) Performance evaluation of digital audio watermarking techniques designed in time, frequency and cepstrum domains. International Conference on Advances in Information Systems, 430–440Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Strang G, Nguyen T (1996) Wavelets and filter banks. Wellesley-Cambridge, WellesleyzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Swanson M, Zhu B, Tewfic A, Boney L (1998) Robust audio watermarking using perceptual masking. Signal Process 66(3):337–355CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Thielde T et al (2000) PEAQ—The ITU standard for objective measurement of perceived audio quality. J Audio Eng 48(1/2/3):3–29Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Vongpraphip S, Ketcham M (2009) An intelligence audio watermarking based on DWT- SVD using ATS, Global Congress on Intelligent Systems, 150–154Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wang X, Zhao H (2006) A novel synchronization invariant audio watermarking scheme based on DWT and DCT. IEEE Trans Signal Process 54(12):4835–4840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wei L, Xue X (2003) An audio watermarking technique that is robust against random cropping. Comput Music J 27(4):58–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wu Y, Shimamoto S (2006) A study on DWT-based digital audio watermarking for mobile ad hoc networks. International Conference on Sensor Networks, Ubiquitous, and Trustworthy ComputingGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wu C, Su P, Kuo J (2000) Robust and efficient digital audio watermarking using audio content analysis. Proceedings of the SPIE12th International Symposium on Electronic Imaging, CA. Vol. 3971, 382–392Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wu S, Huang J, Huang D, Shi Y (2005) Efficiently self-synchronized audio watermarking for assured audio data transmission. IEEE Trans Broadcast 51(1):69–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Xiang S (2011) Audio watermarking robust against D/A and A/D conversions. EURASIP J Advance Signal Process 3:1–14Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Xu C, Wu J, Sun Q, Xin K (1999) Applications of watermarking technology in audio signals. J Audio Eng Soc 47(10)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Yeo I, Kim H (2003) Modified patchwork algorithm: a novel audio watermarking scheme. IEEE Transact Speech Audio Process 11(4):381–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Engineering, College for EngineeringPrincess Sumaya University for TechnologyAmmanJordan

Personalised recommendations