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Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 62, Issue 3, pp 681–699 | Cite as

Audio watermarking scheme robust against desynchronization attacks based on kernel clustering

  • Hong Peng
  • Jun Wang
  • Zulin Zhang
Article

Abstract

In this paper, we propose an adaptive audio watermarking scheme based on kernel fuzzy c-means (KFCM) clustering algorithm, which possesses robust ability against common signal processing and desynchronization attacks. The original audio signal is partitioned into audio frames and then each audio frame is further divided as two sub-frames. In order to resist desynchronization attacks, we embed a synchronization code into first sub-frame of each audio frame by using a mean quantization technique in temporal domain. Moreover, watermark signal is hid into DWT coefficients of second sub-frame of each audio frame by using an energy quantization technique. A local audio feature data set extracted from all audio frames is used to train a KFCM. The well-trained KFCM is used to adaptively control quantization steps in above two quantization techniques. The experimental results show the proposed scheme is robust to common signal processing (such as MP3 lossy compression, noise addition, filtering, re-sampling, re-quantizing) and desynchronization attacks (random cropping, pitch shifting, amplitude variation, time-scale modification, jittering).

Keywords

Audio watermarking Kernel clustering Audio features Desynchronization attacks 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was partially supported by Research Fund of Sichuan Provincial Key Discipline of Power Electronics and Electric Drive, Xihua University (No. SZD0503-09-0), Foundation of Sichuan Provincial Key Discipline of Computer Software and Theory (No. SZD0802-09-1), and Research Fund of Sichuan Key Laboratory of Intelligent Network Information Processing (SGXZD1002-10), China.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mathematics and Computer EngineeringXihua UniversityChengduChina
  2. 2.School of Electrical and Information EngineeringXihua UniversityChengduChina
  3. 3.Department of Computer ScienceSichuan University for NationalitiesKangdingChina

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