Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 52, Issue 2–3, pp 465–484 | Cite as

Issues and solution on distortion drift in reversible video data hiding

  • Xiao Zeng
  • Zhenyong Chen
  • Zhang Xiong


Different from reversible image data hiding, most reversible video data hiding schemes have the particular problem that the distortion due to hidden data will spread and accumulate. In this paper, the problem of distortion drift caused by reversible data hiding in compressed video is analyzed, and a lossless drift compensation scheme is proposed to restrain the distortion for the first time. In order to ensure the reversibility, drift compensation signals are merged in the quantized DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform) coefficients of P-frames and the corresponding recovery mechanism is presented as well. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed lossless drift compensation scheme significantly improves the video quality, and the original compressed video can be recovered exactly after the hidden data and compensation signals are removed. In addition, the proposed scheme does not depend on specific reversible data hiding method.


Reversible data hiding Compressed video Distortion drift Lossless drift compensation 


  1. 1.
    Alattar A, Lin E, Celik M (2003) Digital watermarking of low bit-rate advanced simple profile MPEG-4 compressed video. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 13(8):787–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barton J (1997) Method and apparatus for embedding authentication information within digital data. U.S. Patent 5 646 997Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Biswas S, Das S, Petriu E (2005) An adaptive compressed MPEG-2 video watermarking scheme. IEEE Trans Instrum Meas 54(5):1853–1861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chang CC, Lin CC, Tseng CS, Tai WL (2007) Reversible hiding in DCT-based compressed images. Inf Sci 177(13):2768–2786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen H, Chen ZY, Zeng X, Fan W, Xiong Z (2008) A novel reversible semi-fragile watermarking algorithm of MPEG-4 video for content authentication. In: Proc. of the Second International Symposium on Intelligent Information Technology Application 3:37–41Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen C, Gao TG, Li LZ (2008) A compressed video watermarking scheme with temporal synchronization. In: Proc. of the Congress on Image and Signal Processing (CISP), pp 605–612Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen CC, Kao DS (2007) DCT-based reversible image watermarking approach. In: Proc. of the third International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing 2:489–492Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fridrich J, Goljan M, Du R (2001) Invertible authentication. In: Proc. of SPIE Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents 4314:197–208Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fridrich J, Goljan M, Du R (2001) Invertible authentication watermark for JPEG images. In: Proc. of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing, pp 223–227Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Furht B (1995) A survey of multimedia compression techniques and standards. Part I: JPEG standard. Real-Time Imaging 1(1):49–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hartung F, Girod B (1998) Watermarking of uncompressed and compressed video. Signal Process 66(3):283–301MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hu YJ, Heung-Kyu L, Jianwei L (2009) DE-based reversible data hiding with improved overflow location map. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 19(2):250–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lin SD, Meng HC, Su YL (2007) A novel error resilience using reversible data embedding in H.264/AVC. In: Proc. of the 6th International Conference on Information, Communications & Signal Processing, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ni ZC, Shi YQ, Ansari N, Su W (2006) Reversible data hiding. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 16(3):354–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rui D, Fridrich J (2002) Lossless authentication of MPEG-2 video. In: Proc. of the International Conference on Image Processing 2:893–896Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tian J (2003) Reversible data embedding using a difference expansion. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 13(8):890–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Winne D, Knowles H, Bull D, Canagarajah C (2002) Spatial digital watermark for MPEG-2 video authentication and tamper detection. In: Proc. of International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 1(4):3457–3460Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Xuan GR, Shi YQ, Ni ZC, Chai PQ, Cui X, Tong XF (2007) Reversible data hiding for JPEG images based on histogram pairs. Lect Notes Comput Sci Image Anal Recognit 4633:715–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zeng X, Chen ZY, Chen M, Xiong Z (2010) Invertible image watermarking based on zero coefficient index. J Comput Res Dev 47(7) (in press)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Computer Science and EngineeringBeihang UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations