Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 45, Issue 1–3, pp 61–81 | Cite as

Using geometrical routing for overlay networking in MMOGs

  • Behnoosh HaririEmail author
  • Mohammad Reza Pakravan
  • Shervin Shirmohammadi
  • Mohammad Hossein Alavi


At a first glance, transmitting update information to a geographic region in the virtual space seems to be an attractive primitive in Massively Multiplayer Online Gaming (MMOG) applications where players are constantly moving and need to send updates to their neighbors who are in the same region of the virtual space. The system would become more scalable if entities did not need to keep track of each other or send messages directly to one another. Rather, an entity could just send a message to a specific region in the virtual space (its area of effect), as opposed to sending packets to specific IP addresses, significantly reducing tracking and routing overhead. Fundamentally speaking, update message exchange is mostly based on users’ visibility range, which is mainly affected by proximity; i.e., avatars are interested in nodes within a specific distance around them. Therefore MMOG applications require a routing scheme that can deliver messages to specified locations in the virtual space. Such location based routing motivates the use of geographical routing, which has been introduced and successfully used in the context of wireless networks; however, in its current form it is not well suited for MMOGs which run on wired networks. In this article, we propose a scalable MMOG networking architecture based on hierarchical multi-grid geographical routing that is well suited for MMOG networks. We present our concept and design of hierarchical geometrical routing based on locality sensitive hashing, demonstrate its performance, and discuss both the strengths and shortcomings of our approach.


MMOG Geometrical routing Locality sensitive hashing Overlay networks 



The authors acknowledge the support of Iran Telecommunication Research Center (ITRC) in this project.


  1. 1.
    Abdallah AE, Fevens T, Opatrny J (2006) Randomized 3D Position-based Routing Algorithms for Ad-hoc Networks. Proc. MOBIQUITOUS 1–8Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bharambe A, Pang J, Seshan S (2006) Colyseus: A Distributed Architecture for Multiplayer Games. Proc ACM/USENIX NSDI 3:12Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bose P, Morin P (1999) Online routing in triangulations. Proc ISAAC 113–122Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bose P, Morin P, Stojmenovic I, Urrutla J (2001) Routing with guaranteed delivery in ad hoc wireless networks. J Mobile Communication, Computation and Information 7(6):48–55Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Diot C, Levine BN, Lyles B, Kassem H, Balensiefen D (2000) Deployment issues for the IP multicast service and architecture. IEEE Network 14(1):78–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Douglas S, Tanin E, Harwood A, Karunasekera S (2005) Enabling Massively Multi-Player Online Gaming Applications on a P2P Architecture. Proc IEEE Intl Conf Information and Automation 7–12Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Finn GG (1987) Routing and addressing problems in large metropolitan-scale internetworks. ISI Research Report, ISU/RR-87-180Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gionis A, Indyk P, Motwani R (1999) Similarity Search in High Dimensions via Hashing. Proc Int Conf on Very Large Data Bases 518–529Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hampel T, Bopp T, Hinn R (2006) A Peer-to-Peer Architecture for Massive Multiplayer Online Games. Proc Netgames 48Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Imielinski N, Imielinski T (1997) GeoCast — Geographic Addressing and Routing. Proc IEEE/ACM MobiCom 66–76Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Karp B, Kung HT (2000) Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Wireless Networks. Proc IEEE/ACM MobiCom 243–254Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Knutsson B, Lu H, Xu W, Hopkins B (2004) Peer-to-peer Support for Massively Multiplayer Games. Proc IEEE INFOCOM 96–107Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kranakis E, Singh H, Urrutia J (1999) Compass routing on geometric networks. Proc CCCG 51–54Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kuhn F, Wattenhofer R, Zhang Y, Zollinger A (2003) Geometric ad-hoc routing: of theory and practice. Proc Symp on Principles of distributed computing 63–72Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ledlie J, Pietzuch P, Mitzenmacher M, Seltzer M (2007) Wired Geometric Routing. Proc IPTPSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Limura T, Hazeyama H, Kadobayashi Y (2004) Zoned Federation of Game Servers: a Peer-to-Peer Approach to Scalable Multi-player Online Games. Proc ACM SIGCOMM 116–120Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Seada K, Helmy A (2004) Efficient Geocasting with Perfect Delivery in Wireless Networks. Proc IEEE WCNC 4:2551–2556Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shirmohammadi S, Diabi A, Lacombe P (2005) A Peer-to-Peer Communication Architecture for Networked Games. Proc Future Play 13–15Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stojmenovic I, Lin X (2001) Loop-Free Hybrid Single-Path/Flooding Routing Algorithms with Guaranteed Delivery for Wireless Networks. IEEE Trans Parallel Distrib Syst 12(10):1023–1031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Subramanian L, Stoica I, Balakrishnan H, Katz RH (2003) OverQoS: Offering Internet QoS using overlays. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review 33(1):11–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Takagi H, Kleinrock L (1984) Optimal transmission ranges for randomly distributed packet radio terminals. IEEE Trans Commun 32(3):246–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yu A, Vuong S. T (2005) MOPAR: a Mobile Peer-to-Peer Overlay Architecture for Interest Management of Massively Multiplayer Online Games. Proc NOSSDAV 99–104Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Behnoosh Hariri
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Mohammad Reza Pakravan
    • 1
  • Shervin Shirmohammadi
    • 3
  • Mohammad Hossein Alavi
    • 2
  1. 1.Advanced Communications Research Institute (ACRI), Department of Electrical EngineeringSharif University of TechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Electrical EngineeringSharif University of TechnologyTehranIran
  3. 3.Distributed and Collaborative Virtual Environment Research (DISCOVER) LabSchool of Information Technology and EngineeringOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations