Metal Science and Heat Treatment

, Volume 57, Issue 1–2, pp 18–21 | Cite as

Precipitation of Carbides in Early Aging Stages and Their Crystallographic Orientations in Hadfield Steel Mn13

  • Zhimin Ding
  • Bo Liang
  • Ruirong Zhao
  • Chunhuan Chen

The methods of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction are used to study the carbides precipitated in Hadfield steel Mn13 during 2-h aging at 475°C. It is shown that carbides of types (Fe, Mn, Cr)23C6 and mixed (Fe, Mn, Cr)7C3 + (Fe, Mn, Cr)3C precipitate simultaneously over austenite grain boundaries. The data on precipitation of M23C- and M7C3-type carbides in a Hadfield steel after water quenching and aging are pioneer ones. Strict orientation relations of the M23C6 carbides and of the austenite matrix are determined.

Key words

microstructure crystal structure aging carbides orientation relations 


The authors are grateful to researcher Liu Zhiquan and Dr. Gao Shuang of the Institute of Metal Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences for the valuable guidance and assistance in the work.

The study has been supported by the Program for Liaoning Excellent Talents of the University within Project No. LR2012014, the Technology Promotion Program of the Ministry of Railway of China within Project No. 2012G011-D, and the Science and Technology Project of Dalian within Project No. 2013A16GX119.


  1. 1.
    Hua Wu, Shan-shan Xu, and Huai Wang, “Effect of modification and ageing treatment on mechanical properties of ZGMn13 high manganese steel,” Heat Treat. Met., 34(9), 78 – 82 (2009).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jun-you Liu, Yan-sheng Wu, Li Wei, Shi-ben Wang, Tao Yan, and Wei-dong Liu, “Study on the formation of carbide in high manganese steel and its solution at elevated temperature,” J. Mater. Eng. (Chinese), 3, 24 – 27 (2003).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shiyong Liu, Yaqin Shi, Shijun Ji, Tiangui Wang, and Fanrong Meng, “Study of the wear-resistant high-manganese steel with dispersed carbide particles,” Mater. Mech. Eng. (Chinese), 20(4), 18 – 19 (1996).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhi-min Ding, Shu-juan Wang, Fang Yang, and Ying Yan, “Microstructure of high manganese steel during low-temperature aging treatment,” Trans. Mater. Heat Treat. (Chinese), 28 (Sept.), 29 – 33 (2007).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fen-yan Deng, Yue-xin Ma, and An-quan Zou, “Studies on brittleness phase transformation of high manganese steel,” Tech. Development Enterprise (Chinese), 2(26), 19 – 21 (2007).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. L. Gruzin, V. I. Grigorkin, V. V. Mural’, and L. N. Moskaleva, “Transformations in austenitic manganese steel,” Met. Sci. Heat Treat., 11(1), 5 – 8 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yunoshin Imai and Toshio Saito, “Carbide precipitation by heating high-manganese steel after solution treatment,” Sci. Rep. Res. Inst. Tohoku Univ., Ser. A, Phys. Chem. Metall., 14, 92 – 103 (1962).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zeng-zhi Zhang, Wear-Resistant High Manganese Steel, Metallurgical Industry Press, Beijing (2002).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. M. Howe and G. Spanos, “Atomic structure of the austenite-cementite interface of proeutectoid cementite plates,” Philos. Mag. A, 79(1), 9 – 30 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Li He, Zhihao Jin, and Jinde Lu, “Effect of chromium on the microstructure of Hadfield manganese steel,” Iron Steel (Chinese), 35(5), 48 – 50 (2000).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jingrong Chen and Chengji Li, Solid Phase Transformation in Metals and Alloys, Metallurgical Industry Press, Beijing (1997).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baojun Lin, Xiangdong Xia, and Meidun Yang, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Its Application in the Inspection of Metallic Materials, Inner Mongolia Institute, Baotou (1984).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhimin Ding
    • 1
  • Bo Liang
    • 1
  • Ruirong Zhao
    • 1
  • Chunhuan Chen
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Materials Science and EngineeringDalian Jiaotong UniversityDalianChina

Personalised recommendations