Bolide Energy Estimates from Infrasonic Measurements
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The acoustic amplitude-yield relationships, including formal errors, for a population of energetic (>0.05 kt) and well-observed bolide events have been investigated. Using various infrasonic signal measurements as a function of range, these data have been calibrated against optical yield estimates from satellite measurements. Correction for the presence of stratospheric winds has also been applied to the observations and is found to be small, suggesting that either scatter is dominated by other variations amongst the fireball population such as differing burst altitudes and greater or lesser amounts of fragmentation or the magnitude of the variability in the stratospheric winds, which can be comparable to or even exceed the strength of the winds themselves. Comparison to similar point source, ground-level nuclear and high explosive airwave data shows that bolide infrasound is consistently lower in amplitude. This downward shift relative to nuclear and HE data is interpreted as due in part to increased weak non-linearity during signal propagation from higher altitudes. This is a likely explanation, since mean estimates of the altitude of maximum ene0rgy deposition along the bolide trajectory was found to be between 20 and 30 km altitude for this fireball population.
KeywordsCamera Network Infrasonic Signal Stratospheric Wind Wind Correction Source Altitude
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