Mobile Networks and Applications

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 489–502 | Cite as

Opportunistic Energy Cooperation Mechanism for Large Internet of Things

  • Jinyu Hu
  • Juan Luo
  • Keqin Li


The limited capacity of battery power becomes one of the major constraints in the applications of Internet of things (IoT). Ambient energy harvesting technologies and wireless energy transfer technologies have appeared to resolve the energy supply problem, making it possible for the sensor nodes to operate perpetually. In this paper, we focus on energy efficiency maximization and network throughput optimization problems for energy cooperation in Energy Harvesting Cooperative Wireless Sensor Networks (EHC-WSNs). In order to maximize the efficiency of energy charging phase, a Region-based Proactive Energy Cooperation (RPEC) charging strategy is developed, which is used to charge the life-critical cooperators or receivers in time. By introducing a novel metric that converts optimal forwarder selection from the multi-dimensional problem to one-dimensional problem, an Energy-Neutral-based Opportunistic Cooperative Routing (ENOCR) algorithm is proposed to optimize the relay nodes selection and improve the network throughput. Extensive simulations show that the proposed Opportunistic Energy Cooperation Mechanism (OECM) can significantly improve energy efficiency and network lifetime.


Energy efficiency Energy-neutral operation Opportunistic energy cooperation Energy harvesting cooperative WSNs 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61672220), key technology research and development plan of Hunan (2017GK2030).


  1. 1.
    Jiang J, Wang C, Liao M, Zheng X, Liu J, Chuang C, Hung C, Chen C (2016) A wireless sensor network-based monitoring system with dynamic convergecast tree algorithm for precision cultivation management in orchid greenhouses. Precis Agric 17(6):766–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yu Y (2017) Distributed target tracking in wireless sensor networks with data association uncertainty. IEEE Commun Lett 21(6):1281–1284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lin Z, Zhang S, Yan G (2013) An incremental deployment algorithm for wireless sensor networks using one or multiple autonomous agents. Ad Doc Networks 11(1):355–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tong B, Wang G, Zhang W, Wang C (2011) Node reclamation and replacement for long-lived sensor networks. IEEE Trans Parallel Distrib Syst 22(9):1550–1563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Luo J, Hu J, Wu D, Li R (2015) Opportunistic routing algorithm for relay node selection in wireless sensor networks. IEEE Trans Ind Inf 11(1):112–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alam MM, Trapps P, Mumtaz S, Rodriguez J (2017) Context-aware cooperative testbed for energy analysis in beyond 4g networks. Telecommun Syst 64(2):225–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yang C, Chin K (2017) On nodes placement in energy harvesting wireless sensor networks for coverage and connectivity. IEEE Trans Ind Inf 13(1):27–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chalasani S, Conrad JM (2008) A survey of energy harvesting sources for embedded systems. In: Southeastcon, pp 442–447Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wang C, Li J, Ye F, Yang Y (2016) A mobile data gathering framework for wireless rechargeable sensor networks with vehicle movement costs and capacity constraints. IEEE Trans Comput 65(8):2411–2427MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tong B, Zi L i, Wang G, Zhang W (2010) How wireless power charging technology affects sensor network deployment and routing. In: IEEE international conference on distributed computing systems, pp 438–447Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Guo S, He C, Yang Y (2015) Resall: Energy efficiency maximization for wireless energy harvesting sensor networks. In: IEEE international conference on sensing, communication, and networking, pp 64–72Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gurakan B, Ozel O, Yang J, Ulukus S (2013) Energy cooperation in energy harvesting communications. IEEE Trans Commun 61(12):4884–4898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Choi BH, Thai VX, Lee ES, Kim JH, Rim CT (2016) Dipole-coil-based wide-range inductive power transfer systems for wireless sensors. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 63(5):3158–3167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yang J, Ulukus S (2012) Optimal packet scheduling in an energy harvesting communication system. IEEE Trans Commun 60(1):220–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhao Y, Chen B, Zhang R (2015) Optimal power management for remote estimation with an energy harvesting sensor. IEEE Trans Wirel Commun 14(11):6471–6480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kansal A, Hsu JC, Zahedi S, Srivastava MB (2007) Power management in energy harvesting sensor networks. ACM Transactions in Embedded Computing Systems 6(4):32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Peng S, Wang T, Low CP (2015) Energy neutral clustering for energy harvesting wireless sensors networks. Ad Hoc Netw 28:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Eu ZA, Tan H, Seah WKG (2010) Opportunistic routing in wireless sensor networks powered by ambient energy harvesting. Comput Netw 54(17):2943–2966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Guo S, Wang C, Yang Y (2014) Joint mobile data gathering and energy provisioning in wireless rechargeable sensor networks. IEEE Trans Mob Comput 13(12):2836–2852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kurs A, Karalis A, Moffatt R, Joannopoulos JD, Fisher P, soljačić M (2007) Wireless power transfer via strongly coupled magnetic resonances. Science 317(5834):83–86MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Peng Y, Li Z, Zhang W, Qiao D (2010) Prolonging sensor network lifetime through wireless charging. In: Real-time systems symposium, pp 129–139Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Xie L, Yi S, Hou YT, Sherali HD (2012) Making sensor networks immortal: an energy-renewal approach with wireless power transfer. IEEE/ACM Trans Networking 20(6):1748–1761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    He L, Kong L, Yu G u, Pan J, Zhu T (2015) Evaluating the on-demand mobile charging in wireless sensor networks. IEEE Trans Mob Comput 14(9):1861–1875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lin CC, Chen YC, Chen JL, Deng DJ, Wang SB, Jhong SY (2017) Lifetime enhancement of dynamic heterogeneous wireless sensor networks with energy-harvesting sensors. Mobile Networks and Applications 22(5):931–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wang X, Zhang S (2009) Research on efficient coverage problem of node in wireless sensor networks. In: International symposium on electronic commerce and security, vol 2, pp 532–536Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ishibashi K, Ochiai H, Tarokh V (2012) Energy harvesting cooperative communications. In: IEEE international symposium on personal indoor and mobile radio communications, pp 1819–1823Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Niles MT, Lubell M, Brown M (2015) How limiting factors drive agricultural adaptation to climate change. Agric Ecosyst Environ 200:178–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    NREL solar radiation research laboratory.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Computer Science and Electronic EngineeringHunan UniversityChangshaChina
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceState University of New YorkNew PaltzUSA

Personalised recommendations