Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 46, Issue 1, pp 59–66 | Cite as

Moderation of physiological responses in rice plants with Azolla under 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid stress

  • Arnab Kumar De
  • Arijit Ghosh
  • Kankana Biswas
  • M. K. AdakEmail author
Original Article


The present work highlights some preliminary observations on metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa Linn.) when an aquatic fern Azolla pinnata R.Br. was co-cultured under 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid toxicity. We have observed the effects of Azolla in both fresh and dried forms. This work signifies the possible physiological changes of a crop plant by using Azolla as a bioremediator. In brief the herbicide 2,4-D is considered as stressor to rice plants and by applying the fresh and dried Azolla we investigate the changes occurred. The activities of different nitrogen metabolizing enzymes and reactive oxygen species were observed. On the other hand chlorophyll and carotenoids synthesis were retrieved by addition of fresh and dried Azolla mass over 2,4-D toxicity. Thus, the efficiency of fresh and dried Azolla mass was evaluated under herbicidal toxicity in rice. We evaluate the bio remediating role of Azolla plants against 2,4-D stress and conclude this species would also be supporting in supplementation of major nutrients to rice plants.


Azolla Herbicide Aquatic fern Rice Nitrogen metabolism Reactive oxygen species 



2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid

MS media

Murashige Skoog’s media


Hydrogen peroxide




Potassium iodide


Mercuric chloride


Fresh weight


Ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid






Polyvinyl polypyrrolidone


Magnesium chloride


Manganese chloride


Dry weight


Tri-chloro acetic acid


Reactive oxygen species



The present work is financially supported by DST-PURSE programme on University of Kalyani, DST, Govt. of INDIA, New Delhi.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology Research Unit, Department of BotanyUniversity of KalyaniKalyaniIndia

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