Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 45, Issue 4, pp 419–432 | Cite as

Characterization of xanthine dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase of Marsupenaeus japonicus and their response to microbial pathogen

  • Yo Okamura
  • Mari Inada
  • Gehad Elsaid Elshopakey
  • Toshiaki Itami
Original Article


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play key roles in many physiological processes. In particular, the sterilization mechanism of bacteria using ROS in macrophages is a very important function for biological defense. Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and aldehyde oxidase (AOX), members of the molybdo-flavoenzyme subfamily, are known to generate ROS. Although these enzymes occur in many vertebrates, some insects, and plants, little research has been conducted on XDHs and AOXs in crustaceans. Here, we cloned the entire cDNA sequences of XDH (MjXDH: 4328 bp) and AOX (MjAOX: 4425 bp) from Marsupenaeus japonicus (kuruma shrimp) using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and random amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR transcriptional analysis revealed that MjXDH mRNA is highly expressed in heart and stomach tissues, whereas MjAOX mRNA is highly expressed in the lymphoid organ and intestinal tissues. Furthermore, expression of MjAOX was determined to be up-regulated in the lymphoid organ in response to Vibrio penaeicida at 48 and 72 h after injection; in contrast, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations increased significantly at 6, 12, 48, and 72 h after injection with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and at 72 h after injection with V. penaeicida. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to have identified and cloned XDH and AOX from a crustacean species.


Cloning Molybdo-flavoenzymes Reactive oxygen species Shrimp immune genes Vibrio penaeicida White spot syndrome virus 



This work was supported by JSPS-KAKENHI a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) 15K07555 and Grant- in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) 16K18747. We would like to thank Editage ( for English language editing.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

No potential conflict of interest are disclosed.

Research involving human participants and/or animals

The kuruma shrimp that our target species in this study is edible shrimp in Japan. So, this study is not applicable study in this item. However, before dissecting, the kuruma shrimp was immersed into the iced water for around 5 mm into fall into suspended animation.

Informed consent

We agree that the information in this study is disclosed.

Supplementary material

11033_2018_4177_MOESM1_ESM.docx (33 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 98 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Marine Biology and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of MiyazakiMiyazakiJapan
  2. 2.National Research Institute of AquacultureJapan Fisheries Research and Education AgencyMinami-iseJapan
  3. 3.Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineMansoura UniversityMansouraEgypt

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