Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 42, Issue 1, pp 159–166 | Cite as

Genetic analysis of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) in southern China by improved random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR)

  • Yan Long
  • Jingliang Cheng
  • Zhiqiang Mei
  • Ling Zhao
  • Chunli Wei
  • Shelly Fu
  • Md. Asaduzzaman Khan
  • Junjiang Fu


Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn., L. chinensis), a type of tree growing in most areas of southern China, produces an edible fruit that is also a source of traditional medicine. Genetic identification of litchi species or cultivars using molecular markers is very important. In this study, a total of six litchi samples from Fujian, Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi and Sichuan province, as well as one wild Dimocarpus confinis (D. confinis) sample from Guangxi province were collected for genetic analysis. The cluster dendrograms were constructed for genetic analysis on the basis of DNA amplification results by RAPD and ISSR. The improved RAPD amplified DNA with consistent and clear banding patterns. A total of 176 bands were found, indicating a 72.7 % polymorphism in L. chinensis DNA samples. Significant genetic distances were found among the different species or cultivars, with an index of similarity coefficient ranging from 0.59 to 0.87. Similar to RAPD results, ISSR analysis of the L. chinensis DNA samples showed a range of 0.70–0.93 similarity coefficients. The genetic distance between Hainan sample and Sichuan samples was the farthest, which is consistent with their geographic distance. Furthermore, the index of similarity coefficient between D. confinis and L. chinensis was 0.35–0.41 by RAPD and 0.38–0.48 by ISSR, indicating that these two species have significant genetic difference. This study reveals the high level of genetic differences between different litchi species or cultivars, and confirms the significance of the improved RAPD method in genetic characterization of organisms. Taken together, the improved RAPD combined with ISSR analysis can be used frequently for the genetic diversity, germplasm resources preservation, molecular-assisted breeding, and genetic characterization of various organisms.


Litchi chinensis Sonn. Genetic authentication RAMP Random amplified polymorphic DNA Inter-simple sequence repeat Dimocarpus confinis Genetic distance 



This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81172049), Science and Technology Innovation Team of Colleges and Universities of Sichuan Province (13TD0032), Applied Basic Research Program of Science and Technology Department of Sichuan Province (14JC0797) and Luzhou City Special Foundation (2013LZLY-J10). The authors thank all individuals who provided plant leaves or DNAs.

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yan Long
    • 1
  • Jingliang Cheng
    • 1
  • Zhiqiang Mei
    • 1
  • Ling Zhao
    • 2
  • Chunli Wei
    • 1
  • Shelly Fu
    • 3
  • Md. Asaduzzaman Khan
    • 1
  • Junjiang Fu
    • 4
    • 1
  1. 1.The Research Center for Preclinical MedicineLuzhou Medical CollegeLuzhouChina
  2. 2.The Department of PharmacyLuzhou Medical CollegeLuzhouChina
  3. 3.Michael E. DeBakey High School for Health ProfessionsHoustonUSA
  4. 4.Forensic CenterLuzhou Medical CollegeLuzhouChina

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