Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 41, Issue 11, pp 7305–7312 | Cite as

Multiplex pyrosequencing method to determine CYP2C9*3, VKORC1*2, and CYP4F2*3 polymorphisms simultaneously: its application to a Korean population and comparisons with other ethnic groups

  • Kyoung-Ah Kim
  • Wan-Geun Song
  • Hae-Mi Lee
  • Hyun-Jin Joo
  • Ji-Young Park


Warfarin is an anticoagulant that is difficult to administer because of the wide variation in dose requirements to achieve a therapeutic effect. CYP2C9, VKROC1, and CYP4F2 play important roles in warfarin metabolism, and their genetic polymorphisms are related to the variability in dose determination. In this study we describe a new multiplex pyrosequencing method to identify CYP2C9*3 (rs1057910), VKORC1*2 (rs9923231), and CYP4F2*3 (rs2108661) simultaneously. A multiplex pyrosequencing method to simultaneously detect CYP2C9*3, VKORC1*2, and CYP4F2*3 alleles was designed. We assessed the allele frequencies of the polymorphisms in 250 Korean subjects using the multiplex pyrosequencing method. The results showed 100 % concordance between single and multiplex pyrosequencing methods, and the polymorphisms identified by pyrosequencing were also validated with the direct sequencing method. The allele frequencies of these polymorphisms in this population were as follows: 0.040 for CYP2C9*3, 0.918 for VKORC1*2, and 0.416 for CYP4F2*3. Although the allele frequencies of the CYP2C9*3 and VKROC1*2 were comparable to those in Japanese and Chinese populations, their frequencies in this Korean population differed from those in other ethnic groups; the CYP4F2*3 frequency was the highest among other ethnic populations including Chinese and Japanese populations. The pyrosequencing methods developed were rapid and reliable for detecting CYP2C9*3, VKORC1*2, and CYP4F2*3. Large ethnic differences in the frequency of these genetic polymorphisms were noted among ethnic groups. CYP4F2*3 exhibited its highest allele frequency among other ethnic populations compared to that in a Korean population.


CYP2C9 VKORC1 CYP4F2 Pyrosequencing Pharmacogenetics Ethnic difference Koreans 



This study was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (No. 2009-0074126).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kyoung-Ah Kim
    • 1
  • Wan-Geun Song
    • 1
  • Hae-Mi Lee
    • 1
  • Hyun-Jin Joo
    • 1
  • Ji-Young Park
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Anam HospitalKorea University College of MedicineSeoulKorea

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