Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 41, Issue 5, pp 3127–3133 | Cite as

Associations between C1431T and Pro12Ala variants of PPARγ gene and their haplotypes with susceptibility to metabolic syndrome in an Iranian population

  • Hassan Rooki
  • Monir-sadat Haerian
  • Pedram Azimzadeh
  • Reza Mirhafez
  • Mahmoud Ebrahimi
  • Gordon Ferns
  • Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
  • Mohammad-Reza Zali


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear hormone receptor that regulates a number of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of C1431T and Pro12Ala polymorphisms of PPARγ gene and their haplotypes and diplotypes with risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in an Iranian population. A total of 340 unrelated Iranian subjects, including 175 MetS patients and 165 normal controls were enrolled. Each group was then divided into two subgroups according to the genotype (Pro/Pro and Pro/Ala + Ala/Ala for Pro12Ala, CC and CT + TT for C1431T). Genotypes were determined using a TaqMan method. Anthropometric indices, fasting plasma glucose and fasting lipid profile were measured by routine methods. A significant difference in the frequencies of the C1431T genotypes was observed between MetS and control subjects (P = 0.014), whereas no association was found for the Pro12Ala. The T allele carriers had a significantly increased risk of MetS compared to the CC genotype (P = 0.016) even after correction for multiple-testing and adjustment for age, sex and genotype. The T allele may therefore be considered as a risk factor for MetS (P = 0.003). Analysis of combined groups showed that X/Ala-CC and Pro/Pro-X/T diplotypes were associated with a higher body weight, waist circumference and waist to hip ratio among the individuals with MetS. Moreover the Ala-T haplotype was weakly associated with a higher level of triglyceride and lower level of HDL, suggesting the possibility of an interaction between Ala and T alleles. This study suggests that the PPARγ C1431T polymorphism is related to an increased risk of MetS in an Iranian population and interacts with the Pro12Ala polymorphism, further increasing the risk of MetS.


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ gene Metabolic syndrome Single nucleotide polymorphism 



We would like to thank all the study participants for their cooperation. This work was supported by Research Project No. 467, as a PhD thesis, financed by the Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hassan Rooki
    • 1
    • 2
  • Monir-sadat Haerian
    • 1
  • Pedram Azimzadeh
    • 1
  • Reza Mirhafez
    • 2
  • Mahmoud Ebrahimi
    • 3
  • Gordon Ferns
    • 4
  • Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
    • 2
    • 3
  • Mohammad-Reza Zali
    • 1
  1. 1.Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research CenterShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Modern Sciences and Technologies, School of MedicineMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  3. 3.Cardiovascular Research Center, School of MedicineMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  4. 4.Guy Hilton Research Centre, Institute for Science and Technology in MedicineUniversity of KeeleStoke on TrentUK

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