Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 40, Issue 2, pp 1265–1274 | Cite as

Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase (C4H) genes from Leucaena leucocephala: a pulp yielding leguminous tree

  • Santosh Kumar
  • Sumita Omer
  • Krunal Patel
  • Bashir M. Khan


Leucaena leucocephala is a leguminous tree species accounting for one-fourth of raw material supplied to paper and pulp industry in India. Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase (C4H, EC is the second gene of phenylpropanoid pathway and a member of cytochrome P450 family. There is currently intense interest to alter or modify lignin content of L. leucocephala. Three highly similar C4H alleles of LlC4H1 gene were isolated and characterized. The alleles shared more than 98 % sequence identity at amino acid level to each other. Binding of partial promoter of another C4H gene LlC4H2, to varying amounts of crude nuclear proteins isolated from leaf and stem tissues of L. leucocephala formed two loose and one strong complex, respectively, suggesting that the abundance of proteins that bind with the partial C4H promoter is higher in stem tissue than in leaf tissue. Quantitative Real Time PCR study suggested that among tissues of same age, root tissues had highest level of C4H transcripts. Maximum transcript level was observed in 30 day old root tissue. Among the tissues investigated, C4H activity was highest in 60 day old root tissues. Tissue specific quantitative comparison of lignin from developing seedling stage to 1 year old tree stage indicated that Klason lignin increased in tissues with age.


Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase (C4HLignin Leucaena leucocephala Phenylpropanoid 



The authors thank Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR, Govt. of India) for funding the project. SK and KP thankfully acknowledge CSIR; and SO thanks Department of Biotechnology (Govt. of India) for giving assistance in the form of Junior and Senior Research Fellowship. We also thank Dr. David Nelson, University of Tennessee for classifying and assigning names to LlC4H proteins.

Supplementary material

11033_2012_2169_MOESM1_ESM.docx (18 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 17 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Santosh Kumar
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sumita Omer
    • 1
  • Krunal Patel
    • 1
  • Bashir M. Khan
    • 1
  1. 1.Plant Tissue Culture DivisionCSIR-National Chemical LaboratoryPuneIndia
  2. 2.Division of Plant BiologyCentenary Campus, Bose InstituteKolkataIndia

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