Recently, increasing evidence supports that adult stem cells are the part of a natural system for tissue growth and repair. This study focused on the differences of mesenchymal stem cells from adult adipose (ADSCs), skeletal muscle (MDSCs) and fetal muscle (FMSCs) in biological characteristics, which is the key to cell therapy success. Stem cell antigen 1 (Sca-1) expression of MDSCs and FMSCs at passage 3 was two times more than that at passage 1 (P < 0.0001). After 28-day myogenic induction, higher expression levels of skeletal muscle-specific genes were observed in MDSCs than FMSCs (P < 0.01), and the lowest expression levels were demonstrated in ADSCs among three cells (P < 0.01). Besides, M-Cad and MyHC expressions in ADSCs were not detected by immunofluorescence or real-time quantitative PCR. Furthermore, after 14 days adipogenic induction, PPARγ2, LPL and aP2 mRNA expressions were higher in ADSCs vs. MDSCs (P < 0.01). Besides, MSCs from adult or fetal muscle expressed higher OCN and OPN than ADSCs after 28 days osteogenic induction (P < 0.01). Taken together, our results suggested that cell source and developmental stage had great impacts on biological properties of mesenchymal stem cells, and proper consideration of all the issues is necessary.
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This work was supported by National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2012CB124701) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30972119). We thank Professor Xi Peng and Wentong Meng for technical support in flow cytometric analysis.
Conflict of interest
The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Fig. S1 Phenotypic analysis of cells from different sources of passage 1. Adherent cells were harvested at passage 1, and analyzed by flow cytometry with PE or FITC conjugated monoclonal antibodies to mouse CD31, CD34, CD45, CD44, CD117, or Sca-1. Isotype control antibodies were used to determine the level of nonspecific binding. At least 50000 labeled cells were collected and analyzed with FCS Express Version 3.0. (TIFF 2323 kb)
Fig. S2 Phenotypic analysis of cells from different sources of passage 3. Adherent cells were harvested at passage 3, and analyzed by flow cytometry with PE or FITC conjugated monoclonal antibodies to mouse CD31, CD34, CD45, CD44, CD117, or Sca-1. Isotype control antibodies were used to determine the level of nonspecific binding. At least 50000 labeled cells were collected and analyzed with FCS Express Version 3.0. (TIFF 3197 kb)
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