Advertisement

Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 39, Issue 12, pp 11187–11199 | Cite as

Phylogenetic relationship analysis of Iranians and other world populations using allele frequencies at 12 polymorphic markers

  • Zahra Fazeli
  • Sadeq Vallian
Article

Abstract

The estimation of genetic distance between populations could improve our viewpoint about human migration and its genetic origin. In this study, we used allele frequency data of 12 polymorphic markers on 250 individuals (500 alleles) from the Iranian population to estimate genetic distance between the Iranians and other world populations. The phylogenetic trees for three different sets of allele frequency data were constructed. Our results revealed the genetic similarity between the Iranians and European populations. The lowest genetic distance was observed between the Iranians and some populations reside in Russia. Furthermore, the high genetic distance was observed between the Iranians and East Asian populations. The data suggested that the Iranians might have relatively close evolutionary history with Europeans, but historically independent from East Asian populations. The evaluation of genetic distance between Indians populations and Iranians was also performed. The Indian groups showed low genetic distance with others, but high genetic distance with the Iranians. This study could provide a new insight into the evolutionary history of the Iranian population.

Keywords

Genetic distance Phylogenetic tree DNA polymorphisms The Iranian population 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by intra-institution grant (Pajoohaneh) provided by department of research of University of Isfahan.

Supplementary material

11033_2012_2028_MOESM1_ESM.doc (31 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 31 kb)
11033_2012_2028_MOESM2_ESM.doc (36 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 37 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Agrawal S, Khan F (2005) Reconstructing recent human phylogenies with forensic STR loci: a statistical approach. BMC Genet 6:47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alfonso-Sánchez MA, Pérez-Miranda AM, Herrera RJ (2008) Autosomal microsatellite variability of the Arrernte people of Australia. Am J Hum Biol 20:91–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ayub Q, Mansoor A, Ismail M, Khaliq S, Mohyuddin A, Hameed A, Mazhar K, Rehman S, Siddiqi S, Papaioannou M, Piazza A, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Mehdi SQ (2003) Reconstruction of human evolutionary tree using polymorphic autosomal microsatellites. Am J Phys Anthropol 122:259–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bagdonavicius A, Turbett GR, Buckleton JS, Walsh SJ (2002) Western Australian sub-population data for the thirteen AMPFISTR Profiler Plus and COfiler STR loci. J Forensic Sci 47:1149–1153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Balanovsky O, Rootsi S, Pshenichnov A, Kivisild T, Churnosov M, Evseeva I, Pocheshkhova E, Boldyreva M, Yankovsky N, Balanovska E, Villems R (2008) Two sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in their Eurasian context. Am J Hum Genet 82:236–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bowcock AM, Ruiz-Linares A, Tomfohrde J, Minch E, Kidd JR, Cavalli-Sforza LL (1994) High resolution of human evolutionary trees with polymorphic microsatellites. Nature 368:455–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bryant E, Patton LL (2005) The Indo-Aryan controversy: evidence and inference in Indian history, 1st edn. Rutledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cheung KH, Osier MV, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Miller PL, Kidd KK (2000) ALFRED: an allele frequency database for diverse populations and DNA polymorphisms. Nucleic Acids Res 28(1):361–363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Crawford MH (2007) Anthropological genetics: theory, methods and applications, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Deka R, Jin L, Shriver MD, Yu LM, DeCroo S, Hundrieser J, Bunker CH, Ferrell RE, Chakraborty R (1995) Population genetics of dinucleotide (dC-dA)n (dG-dT)n polymorphisms in world populations. Am J Hum Genet 56:461–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dworniczak B, Wedemeyer N, Eigel A, Horst J (1991) PCR detection of the PvuII(Ea) RFLP at the human phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) locus. Nucleic Acids Res 19:1958Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fazeli Z, Vallian S (2009) Estimation haplotype frequency of BglII/EcoRI/VNTR markers at the PAH gene region in The Iranian population. Int J Hum Gent 9(2):115–121Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fazeli Z, Vallian S (2009) The investigation of haplotype phasing efficiency at the PAH gene region in the Iranian family trios. Iran J Public Health 38(4):136–139Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Goldstein DB, Pollock DD (1997) Launching microsatellites: a review of mutation processes and methods of phylogenetic inference. J Hered 88:335–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Goltsov AA, Eisensmith RC, Naughten ER, Jin L, Chakraborty R, Woo SLC (1993) A single polymorphic STR system in the human phenylalanine hydroxylase gene permits rapid prenatal diagnosis and carrier screening for phenylketonuria. Hum Mol Genet 2:577–581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Goodwin W, Scoular C, Linacre A (2001) 13 STR loci frequency data from a Scottish population. Forensic Sci Int 116:187–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jobling M, Hurles M, Tyler-Smith C (2004) Human evolutionary genetics: origins, peoples & disease. Garland Science, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jorde LB, Rogers AR, Bamshad M, Watkins WS, Krakowiak P, Sung S, Kere J, Harpending HC (1997) Microsatellite diversity and the demographic history of modern humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:3100–3103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Katsuyama Y, Inoko H, Imanishi T, Mizuki N, Gojobori T, Ota M (1998) Genetic relationships among Japanese, Northern Han, Hui, Uygur, Kazakh, Greek, Saudi Arabian, and Italian populations based on allelic frequencies at four VNTR (D1S80, D4S43, COL2A1, D17S5) and one STR (ACTBP2) Loci. Hum Hered 48:126–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lahmi R, Vallian S (2009) Genetic variation of informative short tandem repeat (STR) loci in an the Iranian population. Iran J Biotechnol 7(3):137–141Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Livshits G, Nei M (1990) Relationship between intrapopulational and interpopulational genetic diversity in man. Ann Hum Biol 17:501–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Miller SA, Dykes DD, Polesky HF (1988) A simple salting out procedure for extracting DNA from human nucleated cells. Nucleic Acids Res 16:1215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nachman MW, Crowell SL (2000) Estimate of the mutation rate per nucleotide in humans. Genetics 156:297–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    O’Fallon BD, Fehren-Schmitz L (2011) Native Americans experienced a strong population bottleneck coincident with European contact. PNAS 108(51):20444–20448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rajeevan H, Cheung K-H, Gadagkar R, Stein S, Soundararajan U, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Miller PL, Kidd KK (2005) ALFRED: an allele frequency database for microevolutionary studies. Evol Bioinform Online 1:1–10Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Raymond M, Rousset F (1995) GENEPOP (version 1.2): population genetics software for exact tests and ecumenicism. J Hered 86:248–249Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sokal RR, Sneath PH (1963) Principles of numerical taxonomy. Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Takezaki N, Nei M, Tamura K (2010) POPTREE2: software for constructing population trees from allele frequency data and computing other population statistics with windows Interface. Mol Biol Evol 27(4):747–752PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Vallian S, Moeini H (2006) Genotyping of five polymorphic STR loci in The Iranian province of Isfahan. J Sci 17(2):113–117Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wedemeyer N, Dworniczak B, Horst J (1991) PCR detection of the MspI (Aa) RFLP at the human phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) locus. Nucleic Acids Res 19:1959PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Genetics, Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of IsfahanIsfahanIslamic Republic of Iran
  2. 2.Department of Genetics, Faculty of MedicineShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIslamic Republic of Iran

Personalised recommendations