Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 38, Issue 5, pp 2967–2973 | Cite as

Characterization of an ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase small subunit gene expressed in developing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers



ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADPGp, EC is a tetrameric protein composed of two small and two large subunits that catalyzes the biosynthesis of ADP-glucose from glucose-phosphate which is used to provide the glucose subunits for starch biosynthesis. A second cotton gene encoding an ADPGp small subunit has been cloned and characterized. The gene contains eight introns similar to previously reported potato and cotton ADPGp small subunit genes. The deduced translation of the gene contained a poorly conserved transit peptide and well conserved catalytic and regulatory elements typical of other plant ADPGps. The 5′ end of the mRNA was cloned and sequenced to identify the transcriptional start site (TSS). The promoter region upstream of the TSS did not contain the core promoter sequence in the typical positions indicating this gene may not use a standard core promoter. Other sequence motifs associated with tissue specific expression and phytohormone response were present. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with gene specific primers identified the sites of expression of this gene. Expression was most abundant in the meristem region, and immature stem and relatively lower in starch accumulating roots demonstrating that this gene has a different pattern of expression than the previously reported cotton ADPGp small subunit gene. Additionally this gene was differentially expressed in cotton fibers. The presence of starch was confirmed in developing cotton fibers suggesting that starch metabolism plays a role in cotton fiber development.


Carbohydrate metabolism Fiber development Gene expression Starch 



The author thanks Pameka Johnson for excellent technical assistance and Drs. Jeff Ray and Jodi Scheffler for critical review of this manuscript. This work was supported by USDA/ARS CRIS number 6402-21000-029-00.

Supplementary material

11033_2010_9961_MOESM1_ESM.doc (38 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 38 kb)


  1. 1.
    Graves AD, Stewart MJ (1988) Chronology of the differentiation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber cells. Planta 175:254–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    De Souza JG, Viera da Silva J (1987) Partitioning of carbohydrates in annual and perennial cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). J Exp Bot 38:1211–1218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alabady M, Youn E, Wilkins T (2008) Double feature selection and cluster analyses in mining of microarray data from cotton. BMC Genomics 9:295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Martin C, Smith AM (1995) Starch biosynthesis. Plant Cell 7:971–985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Okita TW, Nakata PA, Anderson JM, Sowokinos J, Morell M, Preiss J (1990) The subunit structure of potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Plant Physiol 93:785–790PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sowokinos JR, Preiss J (1982) Pyrophosphorylases in Solanum tuberosum: III. Purification, physical, and catalytic properties of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in potatoes. Plant Physiol 69:1459–1466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hendriks JHM, Kolbe A, Yves G, Stitt M, Geigenberger P (2003) ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is activated by posttranslational redox-modification in response to light and to sugars in leaves of Arabidopsis and other plant species. Plant Physiol 133:838–849PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tiessen A, Hendriks JHM, Stitt M, Branscheid A, Gibon Y, Farre EM, Geigenberger P (2002) Starch synthesis in potato tubers is regulated by post-translational redox modification of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase: a novel regulatory mechanism linking starch synthesis to the sucrose supply. Plant Cell 14:2191–2213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Taliercio E (2008) Isolation and characterization of an ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene from Gossypium hirsutum L. J Cotton Sci 12:273–279Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kwak MS, Min SR, Lee SM, Kim KN, Liu JR, Paek KH, Shin JS, Bae JM (2007) A sepal-expressed ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene (NtAGP) is required for petal expansion growth in ‘Xanthi’ tobacco. Plant Physiol 145:277–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Larkins BA (1985) Polyribosomes. Mod Methods Plant Anal 1:331-352Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mignery GA, Pikaard CS, Hannapel DJ, Park WD (1984) Isolation and sequence analysis of cDNAs for the major potato tuber protein, patatin. Nucleic Acids Res 12:7987–8001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pfaffl MW (2001) A new mathematical model for the relative quantification in real-time RT-PCR. Nucleic Acids Res 29:e45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hendrix DL (1993) Rapid extraction and analysis of nonstructural carbohydrates in plant tissues. Crop Sci 33:1306–1311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Taliercio E, Allen RD, Essenberg M, Klueva N, Nguyen H, Patil MA, Payton P, Millena ACM, Phillips AL, Pierce ML, Scheffler B, Turley R, Wang J, Zhang D, Scheffler J (2006) Analysis of ESTs from multiple Gossypium hirsutum tissues and identification of SSRs. Genome 49:306–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Udall JA, Swanson JM, Haller K, Rapp RA, Sparks ME, Hatfield J, Yu Y, Wu Y, Dowd C, Arpat AB, Sickler BA, Wilkins TA, Ying Guo J, Ya Chen X, Scheffler J, Taliercio E, Turley R, McFadden H, Payton P, Klueva N, Allen R, Zhang D, Haigler C, Wilkerson C, Suo J, Schulze SR, Pierce ML, Essenberg M, Kim H, Llewellyn DJ, Dennis ES, Kudrna D, Wing R, Paterson AH, Soderlund C, Wendel JF (2006) A global assembly of cotton ESTs. Genome Res 16:441–450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nakata PA, Anderson JM, Okita TW (1994) Structure and expression of the potato ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase small subunit. J Biol Chem 269:30798–30807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Simpson G, Filipowicz W (1996) Splicing of precursors to mRNA in higher plants: mechanism, regulation and sub-nuclear organization of the spliceosomal machinery. Plant Mol Biol 32:1–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Choi SB, Kim KH, Kavakli IH, Lee SK, Okita TW (2001) Transcriptional expression characteristics and subcellular localization of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in the oil plant Perilla frutescens. Plant Cell Physiol 42:146–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hannah LC, Shaw JR, Giroux MJ, Reyss A, Prioul JL, Bae JM, Lee JY (2001) Maize genes encoding the small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Plant Physiol 127:173–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shahmuradov IA, Gammerman AJ, Hancock JM, Bramley PM, Solovyev VV (2003) PlantProm: a database of plant promoter sequences. Nucleic Acids Res 31:114–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Achard P, Lagrange T, El-Zanaty AF, Mache R (2003) Architecture and transcriptional activity of the initiator element of the TATA-less RPL21 gene. Plant J 35:743–752PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chen H-J, Chen J-Y, Wang S-J (2008) Molecular regulation of starch accumulation in rice seedling leaves in response to salt stress. Acta Physiol Plant 30:135–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© US Government Employee 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.USDA-ARSRaleighUSA

Personalised recommendations