Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 257–264 | Cite as

Reevaluation of the Predicted Gene Structure of Dictyostelium Cystatin A3 (cpiC) by Nucleotide Sequence Determination of its cDNA* and its Phylogenetic Position in the Cystatin Superfamily

  • Medhat S. El-Halawany
  • Hideki Shibata
  • Kiyotaka Hitomi
  • Masatoshi Maki


Cystatins, cysteine protease inhibitors, are widely distributed among eukaryotes. We reevaluated the structure of the gene cpiC, a gene encoding the third identified member of cystatin family (cystatin A3) that was predicted in the genome database of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoidium (dictyBase) but remained controversial. We determined the sequences of cDNA and PCR-amplified genomic DNA fragment and found a critical error in the registered nucleotide sequence. The corrected cystatin A3 gene has an open reading frame (ORF) without intron sequence interruption and encodes 94 amino acids (aa), in contrast to the previously predicted sequence of either 80, 82 or 118 aa. The cDNA has an unusual internal poly(A) sequence of 31 adenines, which immediately follows the translation termination codon (TAA) located 146 nucleotides upstream of the post-transcriptional polyadenylation site. The amino acid sequence of Dictyostelium cystatin A3 shows a high similarity to those of previously reported Dictyostelium cystatins as well as Family I cystatins of higher eukaryotes.


cystatin cysteine protease inhibitor dictyBase intron open reading frame poly(A) 



amino acids


expressed sequence tag


open reading frame


untranslated region.


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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Medhat S. El-Halawany
    • 1
  • Hideki Shibata
    • 1
  • Kiyotaka Hitomi
    • 1
  • Masatoshi Maki
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural SciencesNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan

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