Identification of germplasm with stacked QTL underlying seed traits in an inbred soybean population from cultivars Essex and Forrest
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Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seed provides valuable oil (~200 g/kg) and protein (~400 g/kg) co-products. Seed composition variations result from several quantitative trait loci (QTL) that act through development. The objectives here were to identify loci underlying seed traits in the Essex × Forrest (EF94)-derived recombinant inbred line (RIL) population which has low frequencies of marker polymorphisms. Seed weight, protein, and oil were measured over 3 years: 2001, 2003, and 2005. Essex’s seeds were larger (141 mg/seed), higher in protein (406 g/kg), and lower in oil (190 g/kg) than Forrest’s (115 mg/seed, 395 g protein/kg, and 203 g oil/kg). Marker analysis included 413 markers for trait associations used for ANOVA, interval mapping, and composite interval mapping. Eleven QTL in nine genomic regions were associated (LOD >2; P < 0.0077) with seed traits. Two QTL, for mean protein and seed size, were clustered on linkage group (LG) E (chromosome Gm16). QTL for protein content alone were found on LG C2 (Gm6), LG D1b (Gm2), LG H (Gm12), and LG I (Gm20). The alleles from Essex, the high-protein parent, underlay higher protein (4–10 g/kg) at four of five loci. A QTL for mean oil was found on LG A2 (Gm18) and on LG I (Gm 20). The alleles from Forrest underlay higher oil (3–4 g/kg). Five separate QTL for mean seed weight were found on LG A1 (Gm05), LG N (Gm15), two on LG B1 (Gm11) and one on LG N (Gm3). The alleles from Essex underlay greater seed weight (0.4–0.66 g/100 seeds). The QTL positions were consistent with reported loci. Germplasm that contained all five beneficial alleles at the QTL underlying protein was significantly higher in protein and yield than Essex (409.7–412.3 g/kg) and included RILs 49 and 62. The germplasm identified can be useful for further breeding of the many traits and QTL measured in each line.
KeywordsProtein Oil Soybean Seed size QTL Inbred lines
This research was funded by grants from the College of Agriculture and Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research. The authors thank Drs P. Gibson, O. Myers Jr., and M. Schmidt for assistance with germplasm development and maintenance from 1991 to 2000. We thank J. H. Klein III for assistance with germplasm maintenance from 1991 to 2011.
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