Molecular Breeding

, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 1371–1378 | Cite as

A novel molecular marker for the polyphenol oxidase gene located on chromosome 2B in common wheat

  • Hongqi Si
  • Zhiliang Zhou
  • Xiaobo Wang
  • Chuanxi Ma


Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is a major cause of time-dependent darkening and discoloration in Asian noodles and other wheat-based products. One of the best ways to reduce this undesirable darkening is to breed new wheat cultivars with low PPO activity using efficient and reliable markers. Based on the sequence of a PPO gene SSPPO-B1 (GenBank accession no. AB254804) located on chromosome 2B of common wheat, 26 pairs of primers were designed to detect polymorphisms between wheat cultivars with low and high PPO activity. F-8, one of these primer pairs, amplified double fragments (band “a” of approximately 400 bp and band “b” of approximately 600 bp) in the cultivars with low PPO activity, and a single fragment (only band a) in the cultivars with high PPO activity. The differences between the fragments a and b include five indels and several single nucleotide polymorphisms, which occurred in intron II of the PPO gene. F-8 can be used as a sequence-tagged site marker to discriminate between two alleles Ppo-B1a (GQ303713) and Ppo-B1b (AB254804). The screening of 284 accessions of the core collection of Chinese wheat germplasms using the marker F-8 showed that the double fragments were present in 188 accessions, and the single fragments were present in the remaining 96 accessions. Statistical analysis revealed that the cultivars with the double fragments had significantly lower mean PPO activity than those with the single fragments. We also screened the 284 accessions using two additional markers, PPO18 for Ppo-A1 on chromosome 2A and STS01 for Ppo-D1 on chromosome 2D. Results showed that the combination of markers F-8, PPO18, and STS01 could reliably predict PPO activity. These markers can be used in wheat breeding programs for low PPO activity selection to improve the quality of wheat-based products.


Triticum aestivum L. Polyphenol oxidase STS marker PPO gene 



Our work was supported by grants from the Provincial Natural Science Key Research Project of Anhui Colleges (KJ2011A113), the National Key Technologies R&D Program (2011BAD35B03), and China Agriculture Research System (CARS-03). We are very grateful to the State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics & Germplasm Enhancement (Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China) for assistance with the marker chromosomal location experiment.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11032_2012_9723_MOESM1_ESM.doc (47 kb)
Supplementary material 1 Supplementary Fig. 1 DNA sequence alignment of PPO alleles with fragments a and b amplified using the primer pair F-8 from the cultivars with low PPO activity (b4, b5, b6, b10, b11, b12) and high PPO activity (a2, a7, a8, a9). The numbers represent the same cultivars as shown in Table 1. The fragment b1 and a3 did not provide accurate sequences because of the presence of nested peaks in their sequencing profiles. GQ373013, AB254804, EF070147, EF070148, EF070149, and EF070150 indicate Ppo-B1a, Ppo-B1b, Ppo-A1a, Ppo-A1b, Ppo-D1a, and Ppo-D1b, respectively. Intron II is underlined. The five indels are shaded in different colors. The sequence GTACCGCCAGGC that participated in the alternative splicing (Sun et al. 2011) is boxed. The lowercase letters and dots indicate SNPs (DOC 47 kb)
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Supplementary material 2 (JPG 13 kb)
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Supplementary material 3 (DOC 43 kb)
11032_2012_9723_MOESM4_ESM.xls (56 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (XLS 56 kb)
11032_2012_9723_MOESM5_ESM.doc (32 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (DOC 32 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hongqi Si
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Zhiliang Zhou
    • 1
  • Xiaobo Wang
    • 1
  • Chuanxi Ma
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.School of AgronomyAnhui Agricultural UniversityHefeiChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Wheat Biology and Genetic Breeding in Southern Huanghuai Wheat RegionMinistry of AgricultureHefeiChina
  3. 3.Anhui Key Laboratory of Crop BiologyHefeiChina

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