Molecular Breeding

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 419–432 | Cite as

Constitutive expression of the barley HvWRKY38 transcription factor enhances drought tolerance in turf and forage grass (Paspalum notatum Flugge)

  • Xi Xiong
  • Victoria A. James
  • Hangning Zhang
  • Fredy Altpeter


WRKY proteins constitute a family of transcription factors involved in many plant processes, including responses to biotic and abiotic stress. A constitutive HvWRKY38 expression cassette was introduced into apomictic bahiagrass cultivar ‘Argentine’ by biolistic gene transfer. HvWRKY38 integration and expression was detected in transgenic bahiagrass plants and their apomictic seed progeny by Southern blot, PCR and quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis, respectively. Transgenic and wildtype plants were grown hydroponically to allow uniform dehydration and rehydration treatments and measure whole plant relative water content and biomass. Transgenic bahiagrass plants retained water better during dehydration, recovered faster and produced more biomass following rehydration and survived severe dehydration stress under controlled environment conditions in contrast to non-transgenic plants. The observed dehydration tolerance is very desirable in perennial grasses like bahiagrass, where seasonal droughts affect establishment, persistence or productivity. Our results confirm the regulatory role of HvWRKY38 in dehydration tolerance.


Barley Forage grass HvWRKY38 Transcription factor Transgenic bahiagrass Turfgrass 

Supplementary material

11032_2009_9341_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (87 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 86 kb)


  1. Abe H, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Urao T, Iwasaki T, Hosokawa D, Shinozaki K (1997) Role of Arabidopsis MYC and MYB homologs in drought- and abscisic acid-regulated gene expression. Plant Cell 9:1859–1868CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Agharkar M, Lomba P, Altpeter F, Zhang H, Kenworthy K, Lange T (2007) Stable expression of AtGA2ox1 in a low-input turfgrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge) reduces bioactive gibberellin levels and improves turf quality under field conditions. Plant Biotechnol J 6:791–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Altpeter F, James VA (2005) Genetic transformation of turf-type bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge) by biolistic gene transfer. Int Turfgrass Soc Res J 10:485–489Google Scholar
  4. Arisi AM, Cornic G, Jouanin L, Foyer CH (1998) Overexpression of iron superoxide dismutase in transformed poplar modifies the regulation of photosynthesis at low CO2 partial pressures or following exposure to the prooxidant herbicide methyl viologen. Plant Physiol 117:565–574CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Augé RM, Schekel KA, Wample RL (1986) Osmotic adjustment in leaves of VA mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal rose plants in response to drought stress. Plant Physiol 82:765–770CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bevan M (1984) A new Agrobacterium vector for plant transformation. Heredity 53:577–578Google Scholar
  7. Chen W, Provart NJ, Glazebrook J, Katagiri F, Chang HS, Eulgem T, Mauch F, Luan S, Zou G, Whitham SA, Budworth PR, Tao Y, Xie Z, Chen X, Lam S, Kreps JA, Harper JF, Si-Ammour A, Mauch-Mani B, Heinlein M, Kobayashi K, Hohn T, Dangl JL, Wang X, Zhu T (2002) Expression profile matrix of Arabidopsis transcription factor genes suggests their putative functions in response to environmental stresses. Plant Cell 14:559–574CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Christensen AH, Quail PH (1996) Ubiquitin promoter-based vectors for high-level expression of selectable and/or screenable marker genes in monocotyledonous plants. Transgenic Res 5:213–218CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Chujo T, Kato T, Yamada K, Takai R, Akimoto-Tomiyama C, Minami E, Nagamura Y, Shibuya N, Yasuda M, Nakashita H, Umemura K, Okada A, Okada K, Nojiri H, Yamane H (2008) Characterization of an elicitor-induced rice WRKY gene, OsWRKY71. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 72:240–245CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cominelli E, Galbiati M, Vavasseur A, Conti L, Sala T, Vuylsteke M, Leonhardt N, Dellaporta SL, Tonelli C (2005) A guard-cell-specific MYB transcription factor regulates stomatal movements and plants drought tolerance. Curr Biol 15:1196–1200CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Dellaporta SL, Wood J, Hicks JB (1983) A plant DNA minipreparation: version II. Plant Mol Biol Rep 1:19–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dong J, Chen C, Che Z (2003) Expression profile of the Arabidopsis WRKY gene superfamily during plant defense response. Plant Mol Biol 51:21–37CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Du L, Chen Z (2000) Identification of genes encoding receptor-like protein kinases as possible targets of pathogen- and salicylic acid-induced WRKY DNA-binding proteins in Arabidopsis. Plant J 24:837–847CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Dubouzet JG, Sakuma Y, Ito Y, Kasuga M, Dubouzet EG, Miura S, Seki M, Shinozaki K, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K (2003) OsDREB genes in rice, Oryza sativa L., encode transcription activators that function in drought-, high-salt and cold-responsive gene expression. Plant J 33:751–763CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Eulgem T, Rushton PJ, Robatzek S, Somssich IE (2000) The WRKY superfamily of plant transcription factors. Trends Plants Sci 5:199–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Faver KL, Gerik TJ, Thaxton PM, El-Zik KM (1996) Late season water stress in cotton: II. Leaf gas exchange and assimilation capacity. Crop Sci 36:922–928Google Scholar
  17. Finkelstein RR, Lynch TJ (2000) The Arabidopsis abscisic acid response gene ABI5 encodes a basic leucine zipper transcription factor. Plant Cell 12:599–609CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Flexas J, Badger M, Chow WS, Medrano H, Osmond CB (1999) Analysis of the relative increase in photosynthetic O2 uptake when photosynthesis in grapevine leaves is inhibited following low night temperatures and/or water stress. Plant Physiol 121:675–684CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Fraley RT, Rogers SG, Horsch RB, Sanders PR, Flick JS, Adams SP, Bittner ML, Brand LA, Fink CL, Fry JS, Galluppi GR, Goldberg SB, Hoffmann NL, Woo SC (1983) Expression of bacterial genes in plant cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:4803–4807CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Genty B, Briantais JM, Vieira Da Silva JB (1987) Effects on drought on primary photosynthetic processes of cotton leaves. Plant Physiol 83:360–364CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Gilmour SJ, Sebolt AM, Salazar MP, Everard JD, Thomashow MF (2000) Overexpression of the Arabidopsis CBF3 transcriptional activator mimics multiple biochemical changes associated with cold acclimation. Plant Physiol 124:1854–1865CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Guilley H, Dudley RK, Jonard G, Balàzs E, Richards KE (1982) Transcription of cauliflower mosaic virus DNA: detection of promoter sequences, and characterization of transcripts. Cell 30:763–773CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Guiltinan MJ, Marcotte WR Jr, Quatrano RS (1990) A plant leucine zipper protein that recognized an abscisic acid response element. Science 250:267–271CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Haake V, Cook D, Riechmann JL, Pineda O, Thomashow MF, Zhang JZ (2002) Transcription factor CBF4 is a regulator of drought adaptation in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 130:639–648CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Hara K, Yagi M, Kusano T, Sano H (2000) Rapid systemic accumulation of transcripts encoding a tobacco WRKY transcription factor upon wounding. Mol Gen Genet 263:30–37CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Jaglo-Ottosen KR, Gilmour SJ, Zarka DG, Schabenberger O, Thomashow MF (1998) Arabidopsis CBF1 overexpression induces COR genes and enhances freezing tolerance. Science 29:104–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. James VA, Neibaur I, Altpeter F (2008) Stress inducible expression of the DREB1A transcription factor from xeric, Hordeum spontaneum L. in turf and forage grass (Paspalum notatum Flugge) enhances abiotic stress tolerance. Transgenic Res 17:93–104CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Jiang J, Deyholos MK (2009) Functional characterization of Arabidopsis NaCl-inducible WRKY25 and WRKY33 transcription factors in abiotic stresses. Plant Mol Biol 69:91–105CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Kang JY, Choi HI, Im MY, Kim SY (2002) Arabidopsis basic leucine zipper proteins that mediate stress-responsive abscisic acid signaling. Plant Cell 14:343–357CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Kasuga M, Liu Q, Miura S, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Shinozaki K (1999) A combination of the Arabidopsis DREB1A gene and stress-inducible rd29A promoter improved drought- and low-temperature stress tolerance in tobacco by gene transfer. Nat Biotechnol 17:287–291CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Kim KN, Shearman RC, Riordan TP (1999) Top growth and rooting responses of tall fescue cultivars grown in hydroponics. Crop Sci 39:1431–1434Google Scholar
  32. Kim S, Kang JY, Cho DI, Park JH, Kim SY (2004) ABF2, an ABRE-binding bZIP factor, is an essential component of glucose signaling and its overexpression affects multiple stress tolerances. Plant J 40:75–87CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Leung J, Bourvier-Durand M, Morris PC, Guerrier D, Chefdor F, Giraudat J (1994) Arabidopsis ABA response gene ABI1-features of a calcium-modulated protein phosphatase. Science 264:1448–1452CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Liang YK, Dubos C, Dodd IC, Holroyd GH, Hetherington AM, Campbell MM (2005) AtMYB61, an R2R3-MYB transcription factor controlling stomatal aperture in Arabidopsis thaliana. Curr Biol 15:1201–1206CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Liu Q, Kasuga M, Sakuma Y, Abe H, Miura S, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Shinozaki K (1998) Two transcription factors, DREB1 and DREB2, with an EREBP/AP2 DNA binding domain separate two cellular signal transduction pathways in drought- and low-temperature-responsive gene expression, respectively, in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 10:1391–1406CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Liu X, Bai X, Wang X, Chu C (2007) OsWRKY71, a rice transcription factor, is involved in rice defense response. J Plant Physiol 164:969–979CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Mangelsen E, Kilian J, Berendzen KW, Kolukisaoglu UH, Harter K, Jansson C, Wanke D (2008) Phylogenetic and comparative gene expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare) WRKY transcription factor family reveals putatively retained functions between monocots and dicots. BMC Genomics 9:194CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Marani A, Baker DN, Reddy VR, McKinion JM (1985) Effect of water stress on canopy senescence and carbon exchange rates in cotton. Crop Sci 25:798–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Marè C, Mazzucotelli E, Crosatti C, Francia E, Stanca AM, Cattivelli L (2004) Hv-WRKY38: a new transcription factor involved in cold- and drought-response in barley. Plant Mol Biol 55:399–416CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Marshall JG, Dumbroff EB (1999) Turgor regulation via cell wall adjustment in white spruce. Plant Physiol 119:313–320CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Maruyama K, Sakuma Y, Kasuga M, Ito Y, Seki M, Goda H, Shimada Y, Yoshida S, Shinozaki K, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K (2004) Identification of cold-inducible downstream genes of the Arabidopsis DREB1A/CBF3 transcription transcriptional factor using two microarray systems. Plant J 38:982–993CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Mattana M, Biazzi E, Consonni R, Locatelli F, Vannini C, Provera S, Coraggio I (2005) Overexpression of Osmyb4 enhances compatible solute accumulation and increases stress tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana. Physiol Plant 125:212–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Odell JT, Nagy F, Chua NH (1985) Identification of DNA-sequences required for activity of the cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter. Nature 313:810–812CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Oh SJ, Song SI, Kim YS, Jang HJ, Kim SY, Kim M, Kim YK, Nahm BH, Kim JK (2005) Arabidopsis CBF3/DREB1A and ABF3 in transgenic rice increased tolerance to abiotic stress without stunting growth. Plant Physiol 138:341–351CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Pater SD, Greco V, Pham K, Memelink J, Kijne J (1996) Characterization of a zinc-dependent transcriptional activator from Arabidopsis. Nucleic Acids Res 24:4624–4631CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Pegler RAD (1976) Harvest ripeness in grass seed crops. Grass Forage Sci 31:7–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pellegrineschi A, Reynolds M, Pacheco M, Brito RM, Almeraya R, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Hosington D (2004) Stress-induced expression in wheat of the Arabidopsis thaliana DREB1A gene delays water stress symptoms under greenhouse conditions. Genome 47:493–500CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Quartacci MF, Pinzino C, Sgherri CLM, Navari-Izzo F (1995) Lipid composition and protein dynamics in thylakoids of two wheat cultivars differently sensitive to drought. Plant Physiol 108:191–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Ramamoorthy R, Jiang S, Kumar N, Venkatesh PN, Ramachandran S (2008) A comprehensive transcriptional profiling of the WRKY gene family in rice under various abiotic and phytohormone treatments. Plant Cell Physiol 49:865–879CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Robatzek S, Somssich I (2002) Targets of AtWRKY6 regulation during plant senescence and pathogen defense. Genes Dev 16:1139–1149CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Rochester DE, Winer JA, Shah DM (1986) The structure and expression of maize genes encoding the major heat shock protein, hsp70. EMBO J 5:451–458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Ross CA, Liu Y, Shen QJ (2007) The WRKY gene family in rice (Oryza sativa). J Integr Plant Biol 49:827–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rushton PJ, Macdonald H, Httly AK, Lazarus CM, Hooley R (1995) Members of a new family of DNA-binding proteins bind to a conserved cis-element in the promoters of α-Amy2 gene. Plant Mol Biol 29:691–702CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Saghai-Maroof MA, Soliman KM, Jorgensen RA, Allard RW (1984) Ribosomal DNA spacer-length polymorphisms in barley: Mendelian inheritance, chromosomal location, and population dynamics. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:8014–8018CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Sandhu S, Altpeter F (2008) Co-integration, co-expression and inheritance of unlinked minimal transgene expression cassettes in apomictic turf and forage grass (Paspalum notatum Flugge). Plant Cell Rep 27:1755–1765CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Sandhu S, Altpeter F, Blount AR (2007) Apomictic bahiagrass expressing the bar gene in highly resistant to glufosinate under field conditions. Crop Sci 47:1691–1697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sandhu S, James VA, Quesenberry KH, Altpeter F (2009) Risk assessment of transgenic apomictic tetraploid bahiagrass, cytogenetics, breeding behavior and performance of intra-specific hybrids. Theor Appl Genet. doi: 10.1007/s00122-009-1142-y
  58. Sanford JC, De Vit MJ, Russell JA, Smith ED, Harpending PR, Roy MK, Johnson SA (1991) An improved helium-driven biolistic device. Technique 3:3–16Google Scholar
  59. Seki M, Narusaka M, Ishida J, Nanjo T, Fujita M, Oono Y, Kamiya A, Nakajima M, Enju A, Sakurai T, Satou M, Akiyama K, Taji T, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Carninci P, Kawai J, Hayashizaki Y, Shinozaki K (2002) Monitoring the expression profiles of 7000 Arabidopsis genes under drought, cold and high-salinity stresses using a full-length cDNA microarray. Plant J 31:279–292CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Serraj R, Sinclair TR (2002) Osmolyte accumulation: can it really help increase crop yield under drought conditions? Plant Cell Environ 25:333–341CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Shinozaki K, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K (1996) Molecular responses to drought and cold stress. Curr Opin Biotechnol 7:161–167CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Shinozaki K, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K (2000) Molecular responses to dehydration and low temperature: differences and cross-talk between two stress signaling pathways. Curr Opin Plant Biol 3:217–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Shinozaki K, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Seki M (2003) Regulatory network of gene expression in the drought and cold stress responses. Curr Opin Plant Biol 5:410–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sreenivasulu N, Sopory SK, Kavi Kishor PB (2007) Deciphering the regulatory mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in plants by genomic approaches. Gene 388:1–13CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Sun C, Palmqvist S, Olsson H, Boren M, Ahlandsberg S, Jansson C (2003) A novel WRKY transcription factor, SUSIBA2, participates in sugar signaling in barley by binding to the sugar-responsive elements of the iso1 promoter. Plant Cell 15:2076–2092CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Valliyodan B, Nguyen HT (2006) Understanding regulatory networks and engineering for enhanced drought tolerance in plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol 9:189–195CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Vanjildorj E, Bae TW, Riu KZ CH, Kim SY, Lee HY (2005) Overexpression of Arabidopsis ABF3 gene enhances tolerance to drought and cold in transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 83:41–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Vanjildorj E, Bae TW, Riu KZ, Yun PY, Park SY, Lee CH, Kim SY, Lee HY (2006) Transgenic Agrostis mongolica Roshev. with enhanced tolerance to drought and heat stresses obtained from Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 87:109–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Vannini C, Locatelli F, Bracale M, Magnani E, Marsoni M, Osnato M, Mattana M, Baldoni E, Coraggio I (2004) Overexpression of the rice Osmyb4 gene increases chilling and freezing tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Plant J 37:115–127CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Vannini C, Campa M, Iriti M, Genga A, Faoro F, Carravieri S, Rotino GL, Rossoni M, Spinardi A, Bracale M (2007) Evaluation of transgenic tomato plants ectopically expressing the rice Osmyb4 gene. Plant Sci 173:231–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wilkinson S, Davies WJ (2002) ABA-based chemical signaling: the coordination of responses to stress in plants. Plant Cell Environ 25:195–210CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Wilson RF, Burke JJ, Quisenberry JE (1987) Plant morphological and biochemical responses to field water deficits: II. Responses of leaf glycerolipid composition in cotton. Plant Physiol 84:251–254CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Xie Z, Zhang ZL, Zou X, Huang J, Ruas P, Thompson D, Shen QJ (2005) Annotations and functional analyses of the rice WRKY gene superfamily reveal positive and negative regulators of abscisic acid signaling in aleurone cells. Plant Physiol 137:176–189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Xie Z, Zhang Z, Hanzlik S, Cook E, Shen QJ (2007) Salicylic acid inhibits gibberellin-induced alpha-amylase expression and seed germination via a pathway involving an abscisic-acid-inducible WRKY gene. Plant Mol Biol 64:293–303CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Xiong Y, Fei SZ (2006) Functional and phylogenetic analysis of a DREB/CBF-like gene in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Planta 224:878–888CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Shinozaki K (2005) Organization of cis-acting regulatory elements in osmotic- and cold-stress-responsive promoter. Trends Plant Sci 10:88–94CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Yang P, Chen C, Wang Z, Fan B, Chen Z (1999) A pathogen- and salicylic acid-induced WRKY DNA-binding activity recognizes the elicitor response element of the tobacco class I chitinase gene promoter. Plant J 18:141–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Yin JL, Shackel NA, Zekry A, McGuiness PH, Richards C, Van der Putten K, McCaughan GW, Eris JM, Biship GA (2001) Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for measurement of cytokine and growth factor mRNA expression with fluorogenic probes or SYBR Green I. Immunol Cell Biol 79:213–221CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Ying J, Lee EA, Tollenaar M (2002) Response of leaf photosynthesis during the grain-filling period of maize to duration of cold exposure, acclimation, and incident PPFD. Crop Sci 42:1164–1172Google Scholar
  80. Yoda H, Ogawa M, Yamaguchi Y, Koizumi N, Kusano T, Sanop H (2002) Identification of early-responsive genes associated with the hypersensitive response to tobacco mosaic virus and characterization of a WRKY-type transcription factor in tobacco plants. Mol Genet Genome 267:154–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zhang Y, Wang L (2005) The WRKY transcription factor superfamily: its origin in eukaryotes and expansion in plants. BMC Evol Biol 5:1–12CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Zhang H, Lomba P, Altpeter F (2007) Improved turf quality of transgenic bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge) constitutively expressing the ATHB16 gene, a repressor of cell expansion. Mol Breed 20:415–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Zhou Q, Tian A, Zou H, Xie Z, Lei G, Huang J, Wang C, Wang H, Zhang J, Chen S (2008) Soybean WRKY-type transcription factor genes, GmWRKY13, GmWRKY21, and GmWRKY54, confer differential tolerance to abiotic stresses in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Plant Biotechnol J 6:486–503CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Zhu JK (2002) Salt and drought stress signal transduction in plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 53:247–273CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Zou X, Seemann JR, Neuman D, Shen QJ (2004) A WRKY gene from creosote bush encodes an activator of the ABA signaling pathway. J Biol Chem 279:55770–55779CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xi Xiong
    • 1
    • 2
  • Victoria A. James
    • 1
  • Hangning Zhang
    • 1
  • Fredy Altpeter
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Agronomy Department, Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, Genetics InstituteUniversity of Florida, IFASGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Division of Plant SciencesUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA
  3. 3.Laboratory of Molecular Plant Physiology, Agronomy DepartmentUniversity of Florida, IFASGainesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations