Molecular Breeding

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 125–132 | Cite as

Functional diversity at the Rc (red coleoptile) gene in bread wheat

  • E. K. Khlestkina
  • M. S. Röder
  • T. A. Pshenichnikova
  • A. Börner


The presence of the allele Rc-A1b on chromosome 7A specified the expression profile of the F3h-1 (encoding flavanone 3-hydroxylase) genes and anthocyanin pigmentation in coleoptiles of Russian bread wheat cultivar ‘Saratovskaya 29’. A quantitative RT-PCR analysis compared the temporal expression profile of F3h-A1, F3h-B1, and F3h-D1 in the coleoptiles of ‘Saratovskaya 29’ and the standard cytogenetic stock ‘Chinese Spring’ (‘Hope’ 7A), both of which carry Rc-A1b. There was no within-genotype variation for expression level of the F3h-1 homoeologues at any of the sampling times, but the expression profiles varied markedly between the two genotypes. This result suggested that there may be functional allelic diversity at Rc-A1, which affects the transcription of the F3h-1 genes in colored coleoptiles. Microsatellite-based genetic mapping was used to locate Rc-A1 along with the new loci Pc-A1 (purple culm), Plb-A1 (purple leaf blade), and Pls-A1 (purple leaf sheath) in a single cluster on the short arm of chromosome 7A.


Wheat Gene expression Anthocyanin biosynthesis Flavanone 3-hydroxylase Genetic mapping Anthocyanin pigmentation genes 



We thank Renate Voss, Annette Marlow, and Marina Baklanova for their excellent technical assistance. The senior author was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No. 08-04-00368-a), the Russian Science Support Foundation, and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (project No. BO 1423/9-1/551902).


  1. Ahmed N, Maekawa M, Utsugi S, Himi E, Ablet H, Rikiishi K, Noda K (2003) Transient expression of anthocyanin in developing wheat coleoptile by maize c1 and B-peru regulatory genes for anthocyanin synthesis. Breed Sci 52:29–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed N, Maekawa M, Utsugi S, Rikiishi K, Ahmad A, Noda K (2006) The wheat Rc gene for red coleoptile colour codes for a transcriptional activator of late anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. J Cereal Sci 44:54–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Appleford NE, Evans DJ, Lenton JR, Gaskin P, Croker SJ, Devos KM, Phillips AL, Hedden P (2006) Function and transcript analysis of gibberellin-biosynthetic enzymes in wheat. Planta 223:568–582CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Arbuzova VS, Maystrenko OI, Popova OM (1998) Development of near-isogenic lines of the common wheat cultivar ‘Saratovskaya 29’. Cereal Res Com 26:39–46Google Scholar
  5. Bogdanova ED, Sarbaev AT, Makhmudova KK (2002) Resistance of common wheat to bunt. In: Proceedings of the research conference on genetics. Moscow, Russia, pp 43–44Google Scholar
  6. Boss PK, Davies C, Robinson SP (1996) Expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in red and white grapes. Plant Mol Biol 32:565–569CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bottley A, Xia GM, Koebner RM (2006) Homoeologous gene silencing in hexaploid wheat. Plant J 47:897–906CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Capron A (1918) On a case of permanent variation in glume length of extracted parental types and the inheritance of purple color in the Triticum polonicum × T. eloboni. J Genet 7:259–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Christie PJ, Alfenito MR, Walbot V (1994) Impact of low temperature stress on general phenylpropanoid and anthocyanin pathways: enhancement of transcript abundance and anthocyanin pigmentation in maize seedlings. Planta 194:541–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clark JA (1924) Segregation and correlated inheritance in crosses between Kota and Hard Federation wheats for rust and drought resistance. J Agric Res 29:1047Google Scholar
  11. Deboo GB, Albertsen MC, Taylor LP (1995) Flavanone 3-hydroxylase transcripts and flavonol accumulation are temporally coordinate in maize anthers. Plant J 7:703–713CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Dobrovolskaya OB, Arbuzova VS, Lohwasser U, Röder MS, Börner A (2006) Microsatellite mapping of complementary genes for purple grain colour in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Euphytica 150:355–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gaidalenok RF, Khrabrova MA, Litkovskaya NP, Kovaleva NM (1995) Development and use of lines with substituted chromosomes in Saratovskaya 29/Janetzkis Probat. EWAC Newsl (Proceedings of 9th EWAC conference, Gatersleben-Wernigerode) 9:128–131Google Scholar
  14. Gale MD, Flavell RB (1971) The genetic control of anthocyanin biosythesis by homoeologous chromosomes in wheat. Genet Res Camb 18:237–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ganal M, Röder MS (2007) Microsatellite and SNP markers in wheat breeding. In: Varshney RK, Tuberosa R (eds) Genomics-assisted crop improvement. vol. 2: Genomics applications in crops. Springer, The Netherlands, pp 1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Giovanini MP, Puthoff DP, Nemacheck JA, Mittapalli O, Saltzmann KD, Ohm HW, Shukle RH, Williams CE (2006) Gene-for-gene defense of wheat against the Hessian fly lacks a classical oxidative burst. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 19:1023–1033CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Gong Z, Yamazaki M, Sugiyama M, Tanaka Y, Saito K (1997) Cloning and molecular analysis of structural genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and expressed in a forma-specific manner in Perilla frutescens. Plant Mol Biol 35:915–927CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Gould KS (2004) Nature’s swiss army knife: the diverse protective roles of anthocyanins in leaves. J Biomed Biotech 5:314–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goulden CH, Neatby KW, Welsh JN (1928) The inheritance of resistance to Puccinia graminis tritici in a cross between two varieties of Triticum vulgare. Phytopathology 18:627Google Scholar
  20. Gulyaeva ZB (1984) Localization of the genes for pubescence of the glumes and coloration of the auricles in the leaf sheath in winter wheat variety Ul’yanovka. Bull Appl Bot Genet Plant Breed 85:95–96 (In Russian)Google Scholar
  21. Himi E, Noda K (2004) Isolation and location of three homoeologous dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) genes of wheat and their tissue-dependent expression. J Exp Bot 55:365–375CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Himi E, Nisar A, Noda K (2005) Colour genes (R and Rc) for grain and coleoptile upregulate flavonoid biosynthesis genes in wheat. Genome 48:747–754CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Izdebski R (1992) Utilization of rye genetic resources—initial material selection. Hereditas 116:179–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jaakola L, Määttä K, Pirtillä AM, Törrönen R, Kärenlampi S, Hohtola A (2002) Expression of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in relation to anthocyanin, proanthocyanidin, and flavonol levels during bilberry fruit development. Plant Physiol 130:729–739CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Jha KK (1964) The association of a gene for purple coleoptile with chromosome 7D of common wheat. Can J Genet Cytol 6:370–372Google Scholar
  26. Khlestkina EK, Pestsova EG, Röder MS, Börner A (2002a) Molecular mapping, phenotypic expression and geographical distribution of genes determining anthocyanin pigmentation of coleoptiles in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor Appl Genet 104:632–637CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Khlestkina EK, Pestsova EG, Salina EA, Röder MS, Arbuzova VS, Koval SF, Börner A (2002b) Molecular mapping and tagging of wheat genes using RAPD, STS and SSR markers. Cell Mol Biol Letters 7:795–802Google Scholar
  28. Khlestkina EK, Röder MS, Salina EA (2008a) Relationship between homoeologous regulatory and structural genes in allopolyploid genome—a case study in bread wheat. BMC Plant Biology 8:88CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Khlestkina EK, Röder MS, Pshenichnikova TA, Simonov AV, Salina EA, Börner A (2008b) Genes for anthocyanin pigmentation in wheat: review and microsatellite-based mapping. In: Verrity JF, Abbington LE (eds) Chromosome mapping research developments. NOVA Science Publishers, USA, pp 155–175Google Scholar
  30. Khlestkina EK, Pshenichnikova TA, Röder MS, Börner A (2009a) Clustering anthocyanin pigmentation genes in wheat group 7 chromosomes. Cereal Res Com 37(3):391–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Khlestkina EK, Röder MS, Börner A (2009b) Mapping genes controlling anthocyanin pigmentation on the glume and pericarp in tetraploid wheat (Triticum durum L.). Euphytica. doi:  10.1007/s10681-009-9994-4
  32. Kihara H (1944) Discovery of the DD-analyser, one of the ancestors of Triticum vulgare. Agric Hort (Tokyo) 19:13–14Google Scholar
  33. Kihara H (1954) Origin of wheat. Wheat Inform Serv 1:35–42Google Scholar
  34. Kosambi DD (1944) The estimation of map distances from recombination values. Ann Eugenet 12:172–175Google Scholar
  35. Kuspira J, Unrau J (1958) Determination of the number and dominance relationships of genes on substituted chromosomes in common wheat Triticum aestivum L. Can J Plant Sci 38:119–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lander ES, Green P, Abrahamson J, Barlow A, Daly MJ, Lincoln SE, Newburg I (1987) MAPMAKER: an interactive computer package for constructing primary genetic linkage maps of experimental and natural populations. Genomics 1:174–181CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Laurie DA, Reymondie S (1991) High frequencies of fertilization and haploid seedling production in crosses between commercial hexaploid wheat varieties and maize. Plant Breed 106:182–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Liu X, Bai J, Huang L, Zhu L, Liu X, Weng N, Reese JC, Harris M, Stuart JJ, Chen MS (2007) Gene expression of different wheat genotypes during attack by virulent and avirulent Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) larvae. J Chem Ecol 33:2171–2194CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Martin C, Prescott A, Mackay S, Bartlett J, Vrijlandt E (1991) Control of anthocyanin biosynthesis in flowers of Antirrhinum majus. Plant J 1:37–49CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Maystrenko OI (1992) The use of cytogenetic methods in ontogenesis study of common wheat. In: Zhakote AG (ed) Ontogenetics of higher plants. Kishinev, Shtiintsa, pp 98–114Google Scholar
  41. McIntosh RA, Yamazak Y, Dubcovsky J, Rogers J, Morris C, Somers DJ, Appels R, Devos KM (2008) Catalogue of gene symbols for wheat.
  42. Melz G, Thiele V (1990) Chromosome locations of genes controlling ‘purple leaf base’ in rye and wheat. Euphytica 49:155–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Morimoto R, Kosugi T, Nakamura C, Takumi S (2005) Intragenic diversity and functional conservation of the three homoeologous loci of the KN1-type homeobox gene Wknox1 in common wheat. Plant Mol Biol 57:907–924CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Nomura T, Ishihara A, Yanagita RC, Endo TR, Iwamura H (2005) Three genomes differentially contribute to the biosynthesis of benzoxazinones in hexaploid wheat. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:16490–16495CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Plaschke J, Ganal MW, Röder MS (1995) Detection of genetic diversity in closely related bread wheat using microsatellite markers. Theor Appl Genet 91:1001–1007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pozolotina VN, Molchanova IV, Karavaeva EN, Mihkaylovskaya LN, Antonova EV, Karimullina EM (2007) Analysis of current state of terrestrial ecosystems in the East-Ural radioactive trace. The issues of the radiation safety (special issue ‘The East-Ural radioactive trace marks its 50 year anniversary’), pp 32–44 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  47. Quattrocchio F, Wing JF, Leppen HTC, Mol JNM, Koes RE (1993) Regulatory genes controlling anthocyanin pigmentation are functionally conserved among plant species and have distinct sets of target genes. Plant Cell 5:1497–1512CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Röder MS, Korzun V, Wendehake K, Plaschke J, Tixier M-H, Leroy P, Ganal MW (1998) A microsatellite map of wheat. Genetics 149:2007–2023PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Rowland GG, Kerber ER (1974) Telocentric mapping in hexaploid wheat of genes for leaf rust resistance and other characters derived from Aegilops squarrosa. Can J Genet Cytol 16:137–144Google Scholar
  50. Sears ER (1954) The aneuploids of common wheat. Univ Missouri Agric Exp Station Res Bull 572:1–59Google Scholar
  51. Shitsukawa N, Tahira C, Kassai K, Hirabayashi C, Shimizu T, Takumi S, Mochida K, Kawaura K, Ogihara Y, Murai K (2007) Genetic and epigenetic alteration among three homoeologous genes of a class E MADS box gene in hexaploid wheat. Plant Cell 19:1723–1737CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Stracke R, Ishihara H, Huep G, Barsch A, Mehrtens F, Niehaus K, Weisshaar B (2007) Differential regulation of closely related R2R3-MYB transcription factors controls flavonol accumulation in different parts of the Arabidopsis thaliana seedling. Plant J 50:660–677CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Sutka J (1977) The association of genes for purple coleoptile with chromosomes of the wheat variety Mironovskaya 808. Euphytica 26:475–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. K. Khlestkina
    • 1
  • M. S. Röder
    • 2
  • T. A. Pshenichnikova
    • 1
  • A. Börner
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Cytology and GeneticsSiberian Branch of the Russian Academy of SciencesNovosibirskRussia
  2. 2.Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK)GaterslebenGermany

Personalised recommendations