Implicit alcohol and smoking associations among young adult heavy drinkers: Associations with smoking status and alcohol-cigarette co-use

  • Jeffrey D. Wardell
  • Sarah S. Dermody
  • Kristen P. Lindgren
  • Asad M. Medina
  • Christian S. Hendershot
Original Paper
  • 10 Downloads

Abstract

Implicit memory associations may play a role in motivation to use alcohol and cigarettes, but the relationship between implicit associations and co-use of alcohol and cigarettes is currently unknown. This study provided an initial examination of alcohol and smoking implicit associations among young adult drinkers who were either nonsmokers or relatively light smokers (i.e., 10 or fewer cigarettes per day) as a function of smoking frequency and daily-level alcohol-cigarette co-use. Drinkers (n = 129) completed alcohol-arousal and smoking-valence variants of the implicit association test as well as a daily-level assessment of past 90-day alcohol and cigarette use. Smokers were grouped according to whether they reported daily or nondaily smoking frequency. Results showed that although implicit alcohol-arousal associations did not differ between smokers and nonsmokers, stronger implicit alcohol-arousal associations were observed for nondaily smokers relative to daily smokers after controlling for drinking frequency. Further, implicit positive-smoking associations were stronger for smokers relative to nonsmokers. Within the subgroup of nondaily smokers, more frequent co-use of alcohol and cigarettes was associated with stronger implicit positive-smoking associations when controlling for total drinking and smoking frequency. The findings suggest that implicit alcohol and smoking associations may be linked with smoking patterns (daily vs. nondaily) and co-use of alcohol and cigarettes among young adult drinkers who are not heavy smokers, highlighting the need for more research on the role of implicit associations in the co-use of cigarettes and alcohol.

Keywords

Implicit association test Binge drinkers Chippers Occasional smokers Simultaneous use 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Angelo DiBello for his assistance with IAT stimuli development.

Funding

This research was supported by Grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (MOP-119444, MSH-130189) and the Ontario Mental Health Foundation to CSH. The authors also acknowledge additional support from Canadian Institutes of Health Research postdoctoral fellowship Grants to JDW (MFE-140817) and SSD (MFE-33926), the Canada Research Chairs program (CSH), and Grants from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism to KPL (R01 AA024732; R01 AA 21763).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research ethics board and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

References

  1. Coggins, C. R., Murrelle, E. L., Carchman, R. A., & Heidbreder, C. (2009). Light and intermittent cigarette smokers: A review (1989–2009). Psychopharmacology (Berl), 207, 343–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dermody, S. S., & Hendershot, C. S. (2017). A critical review of the effects of nicotine and alcohol coadministration in human laboratory studies. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 41, 473–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464–1480.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). Understanding and using the implicit association test: I. An improved scoring algorithm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 197–216.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Halperin, A. C., Smith, S. S., Heiligenstein, E., Brown, D., & Fleming, M. F. (2010). Cigarette smoking and associated health risks among students at five universities. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 12, 96–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Harris, K. J., Golbeck, A. L., Cronk, N. J., Catley, D., Conway, K., & Williams, K. B. (2009). Timeline follow-back versus global self-reports of tobacco smoking: A comparison of findings with nondaily smokers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 23, 368–372.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Harrison, E. L., Desai, R. A., & McKee, S. A. (2008). Nondaily smoking and alcohol use, hazardous drinking, and alcohol diagnoses among young adults: Findings from the NESARC. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 32, 2081–2087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Heatherton, T. F., Kozlowski, L. T., Frecker, R. C., & Fagerström, K.-O. (1991). The Fagerström test for nicotine dependence: A revision of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. British Journal of Addiction, 86, 1119–1127.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Hendershot, C. S., Wardell, J. D., McPhee, M. D., & Ramchandani, V. A. (2017). A prospective study of genetic factors, human laboratory phenotypes, and heavy drinking in late adolescence. Addiction Biology, 22, 1343–1354.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Husten, C. G. (2009). How should we define light or intermittent smoking? Does it matter? Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 11, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jackson, K. M., Colby, S. M., & Sher, K. J. (2010). Daily patterns of conjoint smoking and drinking in college student smokers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 24, 424–435.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Lewis-Esquerre, J. M., Colby, S. M., Tevyaw, T. O. L., Eaton, C. A., Kahler, C. W., & Monti, P. M. (2005). Validation of the timeline follow-back in the assessment of adolescent smoking. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 79, 33–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Lindgren, K. P., Neighbors, C., Teachman, B. A., Baldwin, S. A., Norris, J., Kaysen, D., Wiers, R. W. (2016). Implicit alcohol associations, especially drinking identity, predict drinking over time. Health Psychology, 35, 908–918.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Lindgren, K. P., Neighbors, C., Teachman, B. A., Wiers, R. W., Westgate, E., & Greenwald, A. G. (2013). I drink therefore I am: Validating alcohol-related implicit association tests. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 27, 1–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Madden, P. A., Bucholz, K. K., Martin, N. G., & Heath, A. C. (2000). Smoking and the genetic contribution to alcohol-dependence risk. Alcohol Research and Health, 24, 209–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. McCarthy, D. M., & Thompsen, D. M. (2006). Implicit and explicit measures of alcohol and smoking cognitions. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20, 436–444.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. McKee, S. A., & Weinberger, A. H. (2013). How can we use our knowledge of alcohol-tobacco interactions to reduce alcohol use? Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 9, 649–674.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Piasecki, T. M., Jahng, S., Wood, P. K., Robertson, B. M., Epler, A. J., Cronk, N. J.,.. . Sher, K. J. (2011). The subjective effects of alcohol–tobacco co-use: An ecological momentary assessment investigation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120, 557–571.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Robinson, S. M., Sobell, L. C., Sobell, M. B., & Leo, G. I. (2014). Reliability of the timeline followback for cocaine, cannabis, and cigarette use. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 28, 154–162.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Roefs, A., Huijding, J., Smulders, F. T., MacLeod, C. M., de Jong, P. J., Wiers, R. W., & Jansen, A. (2011). Implicit measures of association in psychopathology research. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 149–193.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Rooke, S. E., Hine, D. W., & Thorsteinsson, E. B. (2008). Implicit cognition and substance use: A meta-analysis. Addictive behaviors, 33, 1314–1328.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Schane, R. E., Ling, P. M., & Glantz, S. A. (2010). Health effects of light and intermittent smoking: A review. Circulation, 121, 1518–1522.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Shiffman, S., & Paty, J. (2006). Smoking patterns and dependence: Contrasting chippers and heavy smokers. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 509–523.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Sobell, L. C., & Sobell, M. B. (1992). Timeline follow-back: A technique for assessing self-reported alcohol consumption. In R. Z. Litten & J. P. Allen (Eds.), Measuring alcohol consumption: Psychosocial and biochemical methods (pp. 41–72). Totowa: Humana Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sobell, L. C., & Sobell, M. B. (1995). Alcohol consumption measures. In: J. P. Allen & M. Columbus (Eds.), Assessing alcohol problems: A guide for clinicians and researchers. Treatment Handbook Series 4, pp. 55–73. Bethesda: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.Google Scholar
  26. Strang, N. M., Claus, E. D., Ramchandani, V. A., Graff-Guerrero, A., Boileau, I., & Hendershot, C. S. (2015). Dose-dependent effects of intravenous alcohol administration on cerebral blood flow in young adults. Psychopharmacology, 232, 733–744.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Swanson, J. E., Swanson, E., & Greenwald, A. G. (2001). Using the implicit association test to investigate attitude-behaviour consistency for stigmatised behaviour. Cognition & Emotion, 15, 207–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Thush, C., & Wiers, R. W. (2007). Explicit and implicit alcohol-related cognitions and the prediction of future drinking in adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 32, 1367–1383.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Wardell, J. D., Quilty, L. C., & Hendershot, C. S. (2016). Impulsivity, working memory, and impaired control over alcohol: A latent variable analysis. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 30, 544–554.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Wechsler, H., & Nelson, T. F. (2001). Binge drinking and the American college students: What’s five drinks? Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 15, 287–291.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Weitzman, E. R., & Chen, Y.-Y. (2005). The co-occurrence of smoking and drinking among young adults in college: National survey results from the United States. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 80(3), 377–386.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Wiers, R. W., Bartholow, B. D., van den Wildenberg, E., Thush, C., Engels, R. C., Sher, K. J.,.. . Stacy, A. W. (2007). Automatic and controlled processes and the development of addictive behaviors in adolescents: A review and a model. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 86, 263–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wiers, R. W., & De Jong, P. J. (2006). Implicit and explicit alcohol, smoking and drug-related cognitions and emotions. In J. Z. Arsdale (Ed.), Advances in social psychology research (pp. 1–35). New York: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  34. Wiers, R. W., Van De Luitgaarden, J., Van Den Wildenberg, E., & Smulders, F. T. (2005). Challenging implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions in young heavy drinkers. Addiction, 100, 806–819.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Wiers, R. W., Van Woerden, N., Smulders, F. T., & De Jong, P. J. (2002). Implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions in heavy and light drinkers. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 648–658.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Yardley, M. M., Mirbaba, M. M., & Ray, L. A. (2015). Pharmacological options for smoking cessation in heavy-drinking smokers. CNS Drugs, 29, 833–845.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey D. Wardell
    • 1
  • Sarah S. Dermody
    • 2
    • 3
  • Kristen P. Lindgren
    • 4
  • Asad M. Medina
    • 3
  • Christian S. Hendershot
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Institute for Mental Health Policy ResearchCentre for Addiction and Mental HealthTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  3. 3.Centre for Addiction and Mental HealthTorontoCanada
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  5. 5.Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute and Institute for Mental Health Policy ResearchCentre for Addiction and Mental HealthTorontoCanada
  6. 6.Departments of Psychology and PsychiatryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations