Motivation and Emotion

, Volume 40, Issue 5, pp 731–739 | Cite as

Self-reported expression and experience of triumph across four countries

  • Hyisung C. Hwang
  • David Matsumoto
  • Hiroshi Yamada
  • Aleksandra Kostić
  • Juliana V. Granskaya
Original Paper


Recent studies have suggested the existence of the emotion of triumph by documenting how its nonverbal signals are displayed and identified across cultures. The current study contributes to this literature by providing additional convergent evidence about the expression of triumph by examining self-reported expressions of triumph from participants from Japan, Russia, Serbia, and the U.S. Self-reported behavioral expressions of triumph were consistent with three factors previously found to be associated with the triumph expression (Expansion, Aggression, Attention), with the exception of a finding on one scale in one country. The Japanese were prone to report greater regulation compared to the experience of triumph, whereas Americans and Serbians reported relatively greater experience compared to regulation. Across countries, Aggression was positively correlated with self-reported experience. The self-reported expressions of triumph partially corresponded with nonverbal reactions that had been identified as triumph in previous research.


Nonverbal behavior Aggression Culture Dominance Triumph 



The author wishes to thank Kevin Chuc, Sophia Nguyen, and Lauren Skinner for their general assistance in collecting data used in this study. The authors received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article.

Compliance with ethical standard

Conflict of interest

The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interests with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.


  1. Costa, P. T, Jr, & McCrae, R. R. (1989). TheNEO-PIINEO-FFl manual supplement. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  2. Costa, P. T, Jr, & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO five-factor inventory (NEO-FFI) manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  3. de Waal, F. B. M. (1982). Chimpanzee politics: Power and sex among apes. London: Jonathan Cape.Google Scholar
  4. de Waal, F. B. (1986). The integration of dominance and social bonding in primates. Quarterly Review of Biology, 61, 459–479.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. de Waal, F. B. M. (1989). Behavioral contrasts between the two Pan species, with special attention to tension regulation among captive bonobos. In P. Heltne & L. A. Marquardt (Eds.), Understanding chimpanzees (pp. 154–175). Chigo, IL: Academic Science.Google Scholar
  6. Deag, J. M. (1974). A study of the social behavior and ecology of the wild Barbary macaque, Macaca sylvanus, Ph.D. diss, Universit of Bristol.Google Scholar
  7. Driskell, J. E., Olmstead, B., & Salas, E. (1993). Task cues, dominance cues, and influence in task groups. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 51–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Driskell, J. E., & Salas, E. (2005). The effect of content and demeanor on reactions to dominance behavior. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 9, 3–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dunbar, N. E., & Burgoon, J. K. (2005). Perceptions of power and interactional dominance in interpersonal relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 22, 207–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1975). Unmasking the face. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  11. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1978). Facial action coding system: A technique for the measurement of facial movement. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  12. Friedman, H. S., & Miller-Herringer, T. (1991). Nonverbal display of emotion in public and in private: Self-monitoring, personality, and expressive cues. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(5), 766–775.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Fromme, D. K., & Beam, D. V. (1974). Dominance and sex differences in nonverbal responses to differential eye contact. Journal of Research in Personality, 8, 70–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Furuichi, T. (1992). Dominance Relations Among Wild Bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba, Zaı¨re. Abstracts of the XIVth Congress of the International Primatological Society, Strassbourg, 16–22 August, France. Abstract 301.Google Scholar
  15. Furuichi, T., & Ihobe, H. (1994). Variation in male relationships in bonobos and chimpanzees. Behaviour, 130, 211–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (1997). Revealing feelings: Facets of emotional expressivity in self-reports, peer ratings, and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 435–448.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Gross, J. J., & Levenson, R. W. (1993). Emotional suppression: physiology, self-report, and expressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(6), 970.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hall, J. A., Coats, E. G., & Smith LeBeau, L. (2005). Nonverbal behavior and the vertical dimension of social relations: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 898–924.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Henrich, J., & Gil-White, F. J. (2001). The evolution of prestige: Freely conferred status as a mechanism for enhancing the benefits of cultural transmission”. Evolution and Human Behavior, 22, 165–196.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  21. Hwang, H. C., & Matsumoto, D. (2014). Dominance threat display for victory and achievement in competition context. Motivation and Emotion, 38, 206–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Johnsgard, P. A. (1965). Handbook of waterfowl behavior. Ithaca, New York: Cornell, University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Kraus, M. W., & Chen, T. W. D. (2013). A winning smile? Smile intensity, physical dominance, and fighter performance. Emotion, 13, 270–279.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Lewis, K. M. (2000). When leaders display emotion: How followers respond to negative emotional expression of male and female leaders. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 221–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mast, M. S., Hall, J. A., & Roter, D. L. (2008). Caring and dominance affect participants’ perceptions and behaviors during a virtual medical visit. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23, 523–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Matsumoto, D. (1990). Cultural similarities and differences in display rules. Motivation and Emotion, 14(3), 195–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Matsumoto, D., & Hwang, H. S. (2012a). Evidence for a nonverbal expression of triumph. Evolution and Human Behavior, 33(5), 520–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Matsumoto, D., & Hwang, H. C. (2012b). Culture and emotion: The integration of biological and cultural contributions. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 43, 91–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Matsumoto, D., Kudoh, T., Scherer, K. R., & Wallbott, H. G. (1988). Antecedents of and reactions to emotions in the US and Japan. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 19, 267–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Maybury, K. K. (1997). The influence of status and sex on observer judgments of anger displays. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Davis.Google Scholar
  31. Pratto, F., Sidanius, J., Stallworth, L. M., & Malle, B. F. (1994). Social dominance orientation: A personality variable predicting social and political attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 741–763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rinn, W. E. (1984). The neuropsychology of facial expression: A review of the neurological and psychological mechanisms for producing facial expressions. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 52–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Rogers-Millar, E. L., & Millar, F. E. (1979). Domineeringness and dominance: A transactional view. Human Communication Research, 5, 238–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Scherer, K. R. (1997). The role of culture in emotion-antecedent appraisal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(5), 902–922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Scherer, K. R., Wallbott, H. G., Matsumoto, D., & Kudoh, T. (1988). Emotional experience in cultural context: A comparison between Europe, Japan, and the USA. In K. R. Scherer (Ed.), Facets of emotion: Recent research (pp. 5–30).Google Scholar
  36. Schwartz, B., Tesser, A., & Powell, E. (1982). Dominance cues in nonverbal behavior. Social Psychology Quarterly, 45(2), 114–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Snyder, R. A., & Sutker, L. W. (1977). The measurement of the construct of dominance and its relationship to nonverbal behavior. The Journal of Psychology, 97, 227–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Thierry, B. (1985). Social development in three species of macaque (Macaca mulatta, M. fasicularis, M. tonkeana): A preliminary report on the first ten weeks of life. Behavioral Processes, 11, 89–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tiedens, L. Z., & Fragale, A. R. (2003). Power moves: complementarity in dominant and submissive nonverbal behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(3), 558–568.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Tracy, J. L., & Matsumoto, D. (2008). The spontaneous display of pride and shame: Evidence for biologically innate nonverbal displays. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 11655–11660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tracy, J. L., & Robins, R. W. (2008). The nonverbal expression of pride: Evidence for cross-cultural recognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 516–530.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Tracy, J. L., Shariff, A. F., & Cheng, J. T. (2010). A naturalist’s view of pride. Emotion Review, 2, 163–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Vervaecke, H., Vries, H., & Elascker, I. (2000). Dominance and its behavioral measures in a captive group of Bonobos (Pan paniscus). International Journal of Primatology, 21, 47–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Williams, L. A., & DeSteno, D. (2010). Pride in parsimony. Emotion Review, 2(2), 180–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hyisung C. Hwang
    • 1
  • David Matsumoto
    • 1
  • Hiroshi Yamada
    • 2
  • Aleksandra Kostić
    • 3
  • Juliana V. Granskaya
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychologySan Francisco State University and HumintellSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Nihon UniversityTokyoJapan
  3. 3.University of NišNišSerbia
  4. 4.St. Petersburg State UniversitySaint PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations