Modeling the impact of mitigation options on methane abatement from rice fields
- 365 Downloads
The enhanced concentration of methane (CH4) in the atmosphere is significantly responsible for the ominous threat of global warming. Rice (Oryza) paddies are one of the largest anthropogenic sources of atmospheric CH4. Abatement strategies for mitigating CH4 emissions from rice fields offer an avenue to reduce the global atmospheric burden of methane and hence the associated menace of climate change. Projections on population growth suggest that world rice production must increase to meet the population’s food energy demand. In this scenario, those mitigation options are advocated which address both the objectives of methane mitigation and increased production of rice simultaneously. In this paper, we have formulated a nonlinear mathematical model to investigate the effectiveness and limitations of such options in reducing and stabilizing the atmospheric concentration of CH4 while increasing rice yield. In modeling process, it is assumed that implementation rate of mitigation options is proportional to the enhanced concentration of atmospheric CH4 due to rice fields. Model analysis reveals that implementation of mitigation options not always provides “win-win” outcome. Conditions under which these options reduce and stabilize CH4 emission from rice fields have been derived. These conditions are useful in devising strategies for effective abatement of CH4 emission from rice fields along with sustainable increase in rice yield. The analysis also shows that CH4 abatement highly depends on efficiencies of mitigation options to mitigate CH4 emission and improve rice production as well as on the implementation rate of mitigation options. Numerical simulation is carried out to verify theoretical findings.
KeywordsMathematical model Methane gas Rice paddies Sensitivity analysis Stability analysis
The authors are grateful to the handling editor and the anonymous reviewers for their useful comments, which have improved the quality of this paper. The second author thankfully acknowledges the University Grants Commission, New Delhi, India for providing financial assistance in the form of Senior Research Fellowship (20-12/2009(ii) EU-IV).
- Bouwman AF (1991) Agronomic aspects of wetland rice cultivation and associated methane emissions. Biochemistry 15:65–88Google Scholar
- IPCC (2007a) Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
- IPCC (2007b) Agriculture. In: Metz B, Davidson O R, Bosch PR, Dave R, Meyer LA (eds) Climate change 2007: mitigation. Contribution of working group III to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
- Khosa MK, Sidhu BS, Benbi DK (2011) Methane emission from rice fields in relation to management of irrigation water. J Environ Biol 32:169–172Google Scholar
- LaSalle JP, Lefschetz S (1961) Stability by Lyapunov’s second method with applications. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Perko L (2000) Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems, 3rd edn. Springer-VerlagGoogle Scholar
- Rao MRM (1981) Ordinary differential equations: theory and applications. East-West Press Pvt LtdGoogle Scholar
- Setyanto P, Rosenani AB, Boer R, Fauziah CI, Khanif MJ (2004) The effect of rice cultivars on methane emission from irrigated rice field. Indones J Agric Sci 5(1):20–31Google Scholar
- Shin YK, Yun SH, Park ME, Lee BL (1996) Mitigation options for methane emission from rice fields in Korea. Ambio 25(4):289–291Google Scholar
- Wassmann R, Hosen Y, Sumfleth K (2009) Reducing Methane Emissions from Irrigated Rice. Focus 16, Brief 3, An Agenda for Negotiation in Copenhagen 2020 vision for food, agriculture and the environment. Washington, D.C, International Food Policy Research InstituteGoogle Scholar