Advertisement

Analysis of leakage in carbon sequestration projects in forestry: a case study of upper magat watershed, Philippines

  • Rodel D. Lasco
  • Florencia B. Pulhin
  • Renezita F. Sales
Original Paper

Abstract

The role of forestry projects in carbon conservation and sequestration is receiving much attention because of their role in the mitigation of climate change. The main objective of the study is to analyze the potential of the Upper Magat Watershed for a carbon sequestration project.

The three main development components of the project are forest conservation: tree plantations, and agroforestry farm development. At Year 30, the watershed can attain a net carbon benefit of 19.5 M tC at a cost of US$ 34.5 M.

The potential leakage of the project is estimated using historical experience in technology adoption in watershed areas in the Philippines and a high adoption rate. Two leakage scenarios were used: baseline and project leakage scenarios. Most of the leakage occurs in the first 10 years of the project as displacement of livelihood occurs during this time. The carbon lost via leakage is estimated to be 3.7 M tC in the historical adoption scenario, and 8.1 M tC under the enhanced adoption scenario.

Keywords

Upper Magat Carbon sequestration Carbon benefit Net carbon Leakage Forestry 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Atmospheric Programs through the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Disclaimer: The views and opinions of the authors herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or the Environmental Protection Agency.

References

  1. Austria IV (1991/2) Progress Reports on the Philippine Field Test of the Marketing Information System. Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Government of the Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines. (unpublished)Google Scholar
  2. Aukland L, Moura Costa P, Brown S (2001) A conceptual framework and its application for addressing leakage on avoided deforestation projects. Draft Paper. Winrock International, 29 ppGoogle Scholar
  3. Bass S, Dubois O, Moura-Costa P, Pinard M, Tipper R, Wilson C (2000) Rural livelihoods and carbon management. IIED Natural Resources Issues Paper No.1. International Institute for Environment and Development. London, UK, 94 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Borlagdan S, Guiang ES, Pulhin JM (2001) Community-based forest management in the Philippines: a preliminary assessment. Terminal Report. Institute of Philippine Culture, Ateneo de Manila University. Diliman, Quezon City and Department of Social Forestry and Forest Governance, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños. College, Laguna, 210 ppGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown S (1997) Estimating biomass and biomass change of tropical forest: a primer. Forestry paper 134, FAO. RomeGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown P (1998) Climate, biodiversity and forests: issues and opportunities emerging from the Kyoto Protocol. Washington DC, World Resources Institute, 35 ppGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown P, Cabarle B, Livernash R (1997) Carbon counts: estimating climate change mitigation in forestry projects. World Resources Institute, Washington DC, USA, 25 ppGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown S, Masera O, Sathaye J (2000) Project-based activities, Chapter 5, Land Use, Land-use Change, and Forestry, Published for the Intergovermental Panel for Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 284–338Google Scholar
  9. Brown S, Sathaye J, Cannel M, Kauppi P (1996) Management of forests for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions In: Watson RT, Zinyowera MC, Moss RH (eds) Climate Change 1995: impacts, adaptations, and mitigation of climate change: Scientific-Technical Analyses, Chapter 24. Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge and New York, Cambridge University Press, pp 775–797Google Scholar
  10. Calanog LA, Austria MVO (1991) Extension strategies for the adoption of agroforestry farming systems in selected areas in the Philippines. Terminal report. Upland Farms Ecosystem Research Division. Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau. Department of Environment and Natural resources. College, Laguna, 72 ppGoogle Scholar
  11. Castillo ER (1991) The adoption of agroforestry technology: the Case of the Hilly Land households. Unpublished Ph. D. Dissertation. University of the Philippines Los Baños. College, Laguna, 146 ppGoogle Scholar
  12. Chiong-Javier ME (1997) Agroforestry intervention among the Hanunuo: lesson for program development. Developments in Agroforestry research. Book series No. 160. PCARRD. Los Baños, LagunaGoogle Scholar
  13. CIFOR (2001) A shared research agenda for landuse, landuse change, forestry and the Clean Development Mechanism. Center for International Forestry Research. Bogor, Indonesia, 74 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Dolom B. DL (1990) Determinants of soil conservation measures adoption among upland farmers of selected integrated social forestry projects in regions VII and VIII. Unpublished MS Thesis. University of the Philippines Los Baños College, Laguna, 119 ppGoogle Scholar
  15. Gerrits RV, Garcia JNM, Cramb RA (1997) Hedgerow adoption in the Hinterland of Cebu City: a reconnaissance survey. Working Paper No. 20. Los Banos, Philippines: SEARCA-UQ Uplands Research ProjectGoogle Scholar
  16. Hairaiah K, van Noordwijk M, Palm C (1998) Methods for sampling above-ground organic pools. Paper presented during the Training-Workshop on Modelling Global Change Impacts on the Soil Environment. BOTROP-GCTE/Impacts Centre for Southeast Asia (IC-SEA). Bogor, Indonesia, pp 46–77 Google Scholar
  17. IPCC (2001) Climate change 2001: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Summary for policy makers and technical summary of the working group II ReportGoogle Scholar
  18. Langit DM (1988) A study on adoption of technologies introduced by the socail forestry program in Pagkalinawan, Jalajala, Rizal. Learning Site Series in Social Forestry No. 3, Social Forestry Program, Department of Social Forestry, College of Forestry, University of the Philippines Los Baños. College, Laguna, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  19. Lasco RD, Pulhin FB (2000) Forest land-use change in the Philippines and climate change mitigation. Mitigation and Adaptation to Global Change Journal 5:81–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lasco RD, Pulhin FB (2001) Forestry mitigation options in the Philippines: application of the COMAP model. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies to Global Change 6:313–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lasco RD, Pulhin FB, Sales RF, Guillermo IQ (2001) Carbon stocks assessment of secondary forests and tree plantations in the Philippines: towards improving GHG inventory. Terminal Report. Environmental Forestry Programme, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños. College, LagunaGoogle Scholar
  22. Lasco RD, Lales JS, Arnuevo MT, Guillermo IQ, de Jesus AC, Medrano R, Bajar OF, Mendoza CV (2002) Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage and sequestration of land cover in the Leyte Geothermal Reservation. Renew Ener 25:307–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. La Viña AGM (1997) Seeing with clear eyes: the challenge of community-based resource management and the role of academe. In: Castro C, Pulhin FB, Reyes LC (eds) Community-based resource management: a paradigm shift in forestry. FDC Policy Paper No. 97-01-06, UPLB, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  24. MacDicken KG (1997) A guide to monitoring carbon storage in forestry and agroforestry projects. Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, Arlington, VA, USA, 87 ppGoogle Scholar
  25. Mamaril RJ (1991) A systems evaluation of the performance and impact of selected integrated social forestry projects in Iloilo. Unpublished MS Thesis. Institute of Environmental Science, University of the Philippines Los Baños. College, Laguna, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  26. Moura-Costa P (1996) Tropical forestry practices for carbon sequestration. In: Zchulte A, Schone D (eds) Dipterocarp forest ecosystems: towards sustainable management. World Scientific, Singapore, pp 308–334Google Scholar
  27. Myers N (1996) The world’s forests: problems and potentials. Environmental Conservation 23:156–168 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nasayao E, Zara MA (1997) Perceptions, attitude and behavior of CARP-ISF farmer-beneficiaries and their influence on agroforestry technology adoption in Eastern Visayas. Developments in Agroforestry Research. Book Series No. 160. PCARRD. Los Baños, Laguna, pp 318–327Google Scholar
  29. Ngidlo RT (1990) Factors associated with farmer’s adoption of agroforestry: a study of four selected ISF projects in Ifugao Province. Unpublished MS Thesis. College of Forestry, University of the Philippines Los Baños. College, Laguna, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  30. Nicholls N, Gruza GV, Jouzel J, Karl TR, Ogallo LA, Parker DE (1996) Observed climatic variability and change, Chapter 3. In Houghton JT, Meira Filho LG, Callander BA, Harris N, Kettenberg A, Maskell K (eds) Climate Change 1995: impacts, adaptations, and mitigation of climate change: scientific-technical analyses, contribution of working group I to the second assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, Cambridge and New York, Cambridge University Press, pp 137–192Google Scholar
  31. Palijon AM (1988) Contour farming: a documentation of technology introduction and adoption in a social forestry learning site. Learning Site Series in Social Forestry No. 5, Social Forestry Program, Department of Social Forestry, College of Forestry, UP Los Baños. College, Laguna, Philippines, 16 ppGoogle Scholar
  32. PCARR (1980) Standard methods of analysis for soil, plant tissue, water and fertilizer. Philippine council for agriculture and resources research. Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines, 194 pp Google Scholar
  33. Pulhin JM, Rondal JD, Quiton JD, Tapia MA (2002) Adoption of soil and water conservation technology in Impasug-ong, Bukidnon, Philippines. Journal of Environmental Science and Management 5(1–2):27–38Google Scholar
  34. Sayami P (1994) Agroforestry adoption patterns in three selected integrated social forestry projects in Oriental Mindoro, Philippines. Unpublished MS Thesis. College of Forestry, University of the Philippines Los Baños. College, Laguna, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  35. Schimmel D, Enting IG, Heimann M, Wigley TML, Rayneud D, Alves D. and Seigenthler U (1995) CO2 and the carbon cycle. In: Houghton JT, Meira Filho LG, Bruce J, Lee H, Callander BA, Haites E, Harris N, Maskell K (eds) Climate change 1994: radiative forcing of climate change and an evaluation of the IPCC IS92 Emision Scenarios, Published for the IPCC, Cambridge University Press, pp 35–71Google Scholar
  36. SEARCA-UQ Survey Team Los Banos: SEARCA (1995) Soil conservation in an upland farming system in Cebu : a socio-economic survey [Survey report No.1] / SEAMEO. Regional Centre for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture, College, Laguna PH. Project: SEARCA-UQ Uplands Research Project. Descriptors: SOIL CONSERVATION; PHILIPPINES MFN 614 Language: En SEARCA TR 1995, 104 pGoogle Scholar
  37. Tagana RM (1992) Some correlates of people's participation in family and community contract reforestation in Isabela. Unpublished MS Thesis. College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Banos, College, Laguna, 143 pp Google Scholar
  38. Villanueva SP (1995) Impact analysis of a community-based agroforestry farm development projects in atimonan, Quezon. Unpublished MS Thesis. Institute of Environmental Science, University of the Philippines Los Baños. College, Laguna, Philippines Google Scholar
  39. Watson RT, Noble IR, Bolin B, Ravindranath NH, Verado DJ, Dokken DJ (eds) (2000) Land use, land-use change, and forestry, published for the intergovernmental panel for climate change, Cambridge University Press, 377 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rodel D. Lasco
    • 1
  • Florencia B. Pulhin
    • 1
  • Renezita F. Sales
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Forestry Programme (ENFOR)University of the Philippines at Los Baños CollegeLagunaPhilippines

Personalised recommendations