Osmoadaptation in Representatives of Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria from Soda Lakes
The adaptation of microorganisms to life in brines allows two strategies: the accumulation of organic osmoregulators in the cell (as in many moderate halophiles, halomonads in particular) or the accumulation of inorganic ions at extremely high intracellular concentrations (as, for example, in haloanaerobes). To reveal the regularities of osmoregulation in haloalkaliphiles developing in soda lakes, Halomonas campisalis Z-7398-2 and Halomonas sp. AIR-2 were chosen as representatives of halomonads, and Natroniella acetigena, as a representative of haloanaerobes. It was established that, in alkaliphilic halomonads, the intracellular concentrations of inorganic ions are insufficient for counterbalancing the environmental osmotic pressure and balance is attained due to the accumulation of organic osmoregulators, such as ectoine and betaine. On the contrary, the alkaliphilic haloanaerobe N. acetigena employs K+, Na+, and Cl− ions for osmoregulation. High intracellular salt concentrations increasing with the content of Na+ in the medium were revealed in this organism. At a concentration of 1.91 M Na+ in the medium, N. acetigena accumulated 0.83 M K+, 0.91 M Na+, and 0.29 M Cl− in cells, and, with an increase in the Na+ content in the medium to 2.59 M, it accumulated 0.94 M K+, 1.98 M Na+, and 0.89 M Cl−, which counterbalanced the external osmotic pressure and provided for cell turgor. Thus, it was shown that alkaliphilic microorganisms use osmoregulation strategies similar to those of halophiles and these mechanisms are independent of the mechanism of pH homeostasis.
Key wordssoda lakes haloalkaliphiles osmoregulators intracellular ion concentrations
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