The rate and extent of desulfurization and vacuum degassing of steel during its treatment outside the furnace should be determined by the quality characteristics and service properties required of the given steel. The ability of the chosen inoculation technology to improve the quality of the steel should also be considered in this determination. To make inoculation more effective, it is necessary to use complex master alloys that contain calcium, barium, aluminum, rare-earth meals, and other active elements. It would also be best to transfer the inoculation operation from the ladle to the casting equipment (thus adding the inoculant directly to the fountain, tundish, or continuous-caster mold).
KeywordsDesulfurization Master Alloy Nonmetallic Inclusion Calcium Aluminate Rail Steel
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