Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry

, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 25–49 | Cite as

Translation And Cultural Adaptation Of A Mental Health Outcome Measure: The Basis-R©

  • Dharma E. Cortés
  • Mariana Gerena
  • Glorisa Canino
  • Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola
  • Vivian Febo
  • Cristina Magaña
  • Jesús Soto
  • Susan V. Eisen


Culturally and linguistically appropriate outcome measures are needed to address the needs of Latino consumers of mental health services. The revised Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale (BASIS-R©) is an English-language consumer self-report measure designed to assess outcome of behavioral health or substance abuse treatment. This study sought to develop a culturally and linguistically appropriate version of the BASIS-R© for Spanish-speaking Latinos. To achieve this goal, the English instrument was translated and adapted into Spanish by an international bilingual committee and tested in four focus groups and 45 cognitive interviews with Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, and Mexicans living in the United States and Puerto Rico. Focus groups and cognitive interviews provided qualitative and quantitative information about the instrument’s content and format, and respondents’ understanding of the instructions, questionnaire items, time frame, and response options. Respondents’ ratings of the clarity and importance of each item were also obtained. Analyses of focus group and cognitive interview data identified items that were confusing or difficult for participants. Findings suggest that the Spanish version of the BASIS-R© incorporated the cultural diversity of the three groups of Latinos in this study without compromising the validity of the English version of the BASIS.


Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale—Revised Spanish version mental health outcome adaptation translation 


Acknowledgments and Disclaimer

This research was supported by Grant R01 MH58240 from the National Institute of Mental Health and by the Veterans Administration Health Services Research and Development program. The views expressed in this article are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Veterans Affairs.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dharma E. Cortés
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mariana Gerena
    • 3
  • Glorisa Canino
    • 4
  • Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola
    • 5
  • Vivian Febo
    • 4
  • Cristina Magaña
    • 5
  • Jesús Soto
    • 4
  • Susan V. Eisen
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1. Department of PsychiatryCambridge Health AllianceCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.Institute on Urban Health Research Bouvé College of Health SciencesNortheastern UniversityBostonUSA
  4. 4.School of MedicineUniversity of Puerto RicoSan JuanUSA
  5. 5.California State UniversityFresnoUSA
  6. 6.Center for Health Quality, Outcomes and Economics Research (CHQOER)Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial Veterans HospitalBedfordUSA
  7. 7.Boston University School of Public HealthBostonUSA

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