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Metabolic Brain Disease

, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 195–202 | Cite as

Hair toxic and essential trace elements in children with autism spectrum disorder

  • Anatoly V. Skalny
  • Natalia V. Simashkova
  • Tatiana P. Klyushnik
  • Andrei R. Grabeklis
  • Geir Bjørklund
  • Margarita G. Skalnaya
  • Alexandr A. Nikonorov
  • Alexey A. Tinkov
Original Article

Abstract

The objective of the study was to investigate hair trace elements content in children suffering from autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A total of 74 ASD children and 74 sex- and age-matched controls divided into two age groups (2–4 and 5–9 years) were investigated. Hair trace elements content was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A general cohort of ASD children was characterized by 29 %, 41 %, and 24 % lower hair levels of chromium (Cr), iodine (I), and vanadium (V), respectively, whereas the level of selenium (Se) exceeded the respective control values by 31 %. In ASD children aged 2–4 years hair Cr, I and V content was 68 %, 36 % and 41 % lower than in the controls. Older ASD children were characterized by 45 % increase in hair Se levels. In a general cohort of ASD children hair beryllium (Be) and tin (Sn) levels were 50 % and 34 % lower than the control values. In the first age group (2–4 years) of ASD children 34 %, 42 %, and 73 % lower levels of arsenic (As), boron (B), and Be were detected. In the second age group of ASD children only a nearly significant 25 % decrease in hair lead (Pb) was detected. Surprisingly, no significant group difference in hair mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) content was detected. Generally, the results of the present study demonstrate that children with ASD are characterized by lower values in hair of not only essential but also toxic trace elements.

Keywords

Autism Children Hair Trace elements Metals Selenium 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This paper was financially supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation on the program to improve the competitiveness of Peoples’ Friendship University (RUDN) University among the world’s leading research and education centers in 2016 – 2020.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anatoly V. Skalny
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Natalia V. Simashkova
    • 5
  • Tatiana P. Klyushnik
    • 5
  • Andrei R. Grabeklis
    • 3
  • Geir Bjørklund
    • 6
  • Margarita G. Skalnaya
    • 4
    • 7
  • Alexandr A. Nikonorov
    • 2
    • 8
  • Alexey A. Tinkov
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 8
  1. 1.All-Russian Research Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic PlantsMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Orenburg State UniversityOrenburgRussia
  3. 3.Yaroslavl State UniversityYaroslavlRussia
  4. 4.RUDN UniversityMoscowRussia
  5. 5.Scientific Center for Mental HealthRussian Academy of Medical SciencesMoscowRussia
  6. 6.Council for Nutritional and Environmental MedicineMo i RanaNorway
  7. 7.Russian Society of Trace Elements in MedicineMoscowRussia
  8. 8.Department of BiochemistryOrenburg State Medical UniversityOrenburgRussia

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