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Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

, Volume 419, Issue 1–2, pp 53–64 | Cite as

Salidroside protects cortical neurons against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity by inhibiting autophagy

  • Wei-Yong Yin
  • Qiang Ye
  • Huan-Jie Huang
  • Nian-Ge Xia
  • Yan-Yan Chen
  • Yi Zhang
  • Qiu-Min Qu
Article

Abstract

Recent evidence suggests that glutamate-induced cytotoxicity contributes to autophagic neuron death and is partially mediated by increased oxidative stress. Salidroside has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective effects in glutamate-induced neuronal damage. The precise mechanism of its regulatory role in neuronal autophagy is, however, poorly understood. This study aimed to probe the effects and mechanisms of salidroside in glutamate-induced autophagy activation in cultured rat cortical neurons. Cell viability assay, Western blotting, coimmunoprecipitation, and small interfering RNA were performed to analyze autophagy activities during glutamate-evoked oxidative injury. We found that salidroside protected neonatal neurons from glutamate-induced apoptotic cell death. Salidroside significantly attenuated the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and expression of Beclin-1, but increased (SQSTM1)/p62 expression under glutamate exposure. Pretreatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an autophagy inhibitor, decreased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, attenuated glutamate-induced cell injury, and mimicked some of the protective effects of salidroside against glutamate-induced cell injury. Molecular analysis demonstrated that salidroside inhibited cortical neuron autophagy in response to glutamate exposure through p53 signaling by increasing the accumulation of cytoplasmic p53. Salidroside inhibited the glutamate-induced dissociation of the Bcl-2-Beclin-1 complex with minor affects on the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. These data demonstrate that the inhibition of autophagy could be responsible for the neuroprotective effects of salidroside on glutamate-induced neuronal injury.

Keywords

Salidroside Cortical neurons Cytotoxicity Autophagy Neuronal injury 

Abbreviations

PI3K

Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase

mTOR

The mammalian target of rapamycin

DMEM

Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium

NB

Neurobasal medium

SiRNA

Small interfering RNA

SQSTM1

Sequestosome-1

3-MA

3-Methyladenine

PFT-α

Pifithrin-α

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the 863-Chinese National Science and Technology Project (2007AA02Z443).

Supplementary material

11010_2016_2749_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.4 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1429 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wei-Yong Yin
    • 1
  • Qiang Ye
    • 2
  • Huan-Jie Huang
    • 2
  • Nian-Ge Xia
    • 2
  • Yan-Yan Chen
    • 2
  • Yi Zhang
    • 3
  • Qiu-Min Qu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyThe First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyThe First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical UniversityWenzhouChina
  3. 3.School of Pharmaceutical SciencesWenzhou Medical UniversityWenzhouChina

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