E2F1 regulates p53R2 gene expression in p53-deficient cells
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The p53R2 gene encoding a small subunit of the ribonucleotide reductase has been identified as a p53-inducible gene. Although this gene is discovered as a target for p53 family proteins, the mechanism underlying p53R2 induction by DNA damage in p53-defiencient cells remains to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that transcription factor E2F1 regulates the p53R2 gene expression in p53-deficient cells. We found that p53R2 was a target for E2F1 in DNA damage response (DDR), because ectopic expression of E2F1 in HCT116-p53−/− cells resulted in the increase of p53R2 mRNA and protein expression, and silencing E2F1 diminished its basic expression. Combination of luciferase reporter assay with overexpression or knockdown of E2F1 revealed that E2F1 directly activates the p53R2 gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed E2F1 directly bound to the site (TTTGGCGG) at position −684 to −677 of the promoter under E2F1 overexpression or adriamycin (ADR) exposure. Moreover, silencing p53R2 could enhance apoptotic cell death in both HCT116-p53−/− and HCT116-p53+/+ compared to ADR exposure, indicating that p53R2 may protect cancer cell from ADR-induced apoptosis. Together, we have identified a new role of E2F1 in the regulation of p53R2 expression in DDR, and silencing p53R2 may sensitize cancer cells to ADR-induced apoptosis. Our data support the notion that p53R2 is a potential target for cancer therapy. The involvement of E2F1-dependent p53R2 activation in DDR will provide further insight into the induction of p53R2 in p53-deficient cells. These data also give us a deeper understanding of E2F1 role in DDR.
Keywordsp53R2 E2F1 ADR-induced DNA damage Transcriptional regulation Apoptosis
We thank Dr. Joseph R. Nevins (Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA) for pcDNA3-E2F1, and Dr. Wei-Guo Zhu (Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China) for HCT116 cells. This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of PR China Grants 30671062 and 30971449, and Beijing Natural Science Foundation Grants 5112018 and 7132120.
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