Enhanced ROS production and oxidative damage in subcutaneous white adipose tissue mitochondria in obese and type 2 diabetes subjects
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Oxidative stress in the insulin target tissues has been implicated in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. The study has examined the oxidative stress parameters in the mitochondria of subcutaneous white adipose tissue from obese and non-obese subjects with or without type 2 diabetes. An accumulation of protein carbonyls, fluorescent lipid peroxidation products, and malondialdehyde occurs in the adipose tissue mitochondria of obese type 2 diabetic, non-diabetic obese, and non-obese diabetic subjects with the maximum increase noticed in the obese type 2 diabetes patients and the minimum in non-obese type 2 diabetics. The mitochondria from obese type 2 diabetics, non-diabetic obese, and non-obese type 2 diabetics also produce significantly more reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro compared to those of controls, and apparently the mitochondrial ROS production rate in each group is proportional to the respective load of oxidative damage markers. Likewise, the mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase show decreased activities most markedly in obese type 2 diabetes subjects and to a lesser degree in non-obese type 2 diabetes or non-diabetic obese subjects in comparison to control. The results imply that mitochondrial dysfunction with enhanced ROS production may contribute to the metabolic abnormality of adipose tissue in obesity and diabetes.
KeywordsDiabetes Obesity Oxidative stress Adipose tissue Mitochondrial dysfunction
The study was supported by a Grant from Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Government of India. (No. 27(0202)/09/EMR-II, 2009-2012). We are thankful to Dr. Manoj Khanna, Cosmetic Surgeon for his generous help in providing the adipose tissue obtained by liposuction and Ms. Indrani Roy for technical help in tissue processing. We thank the West Bengal University of Health Sciences for their help and encouragement.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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