The novel estrogen receptor GPER regulates the migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells
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G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) was identified as a new member of the estrogen receptor family in recent years. It has become apparent that GPER mediates the non-genomic signaling of 17β-estradiol (E2) in a variety of estrogen-related cancers. Our previous study has found that GPER was overexpressed in human epithelial ovarian cancer and was positively correlated with the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), which suggested GPER might promote the metastasis of ovarian cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying GPER-dependent metastasis of ovarian cancer are still not clear. In the present study, estrogen receptor α (ERα)-negative/GPER-positive OVCAR5 ovarian cancer cell line was used to investigate the role of GPER in the migration and invasion of ovarian cancer. Wound healing assay and transwell matrigel invasion assay were performed to determine the potentials of cell migration and invasion, respectively. The production and activity of MMP-9 in OVCAR5 cells were examined by Western blot and gelatin zymography analysis. The results showed that E2 and selective GPER agonist G-1 increased cell motility and invasiveness, and upregulated the production and proteolytic activity of MMP-9 in OVCAR5 cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting GPER and G protein inhibitor pertussin toxin (PTX) inhibited the migration and invasion of OVCAR5 cells, and also reduced the expression and activity of MMP-9. Our data suggested that GPER promoted the migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells by increasing the expression and activity of MMP-9. GPER might play an important role in the progression of ovarian cancer.
KeywordsGPER MMP-9 Ovarian cancer Migration Invasion
This study was supported by Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province of China (Grant No.: D201008) and Scientific Research Foundation for Postdoctoral Researchers of Heilongjiang Province (Grant No.: LRB04-248).
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