Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

, Volume 366, Issue 1–2, pp 89–99 | Cite as

Chemopreventive effects of NSAIDs as inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducers of apoptosis in experimental lung carcinogenesis

  • Shruti Setia
  • Vivek Vaish
  • Sankar Nath Sanyal


Roles of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme and intrinsic pathway of apoptosis have been explored for the chemopreventive effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on 9,10-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced lung cancer in rat model. 16 weeks after the administration of DMBA, morphological analysis revealed the occurrences of tumours and lesions, which were regressed considerably with the co-administration of indomethacin and etoricoxib, the two NSAIDs under investigation. DMBA group was marked by hyperplasia and dysplasia as observed by histological examination, and these features were corrected to a large extent by the two NSAIDs. Elevated levels of COX-2 were seen in the DMBA group, the enzyme responsible for prostaglandin synthesis during inflammation and cancer, whilst the expression of the constitutive isoform, COX-1, was equally expressed in all the groups. Apoptosis was quantified by studying the activities of apaf-1, caspase-9, and 3 by immunofluorescence and western blots. Their activities were found to diminish in the DMBA-treated animals as compared to the other groups. Fluorescent co-staining of the isolated broncho-alveolar lavage cells showed reduced number of apoptotic cells in the DMBA group, indicating decrease in apoptosis after carcinogen administration. The present results thus suggest that the mechanism of cancer chemoprevention of NSAIDs may include the suppression of COX-2 and the induction of apoptosis.


Apoptosis COX-2 DMBA Eoricoxib Indomethacin NSAIDs 


Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shruti Setia
    • 1
  • Vivek Vaish
    • 1
  • Sankar Nath Sanyal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiophysicsPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

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