Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

, Volume 355, Issue 1–2, pp 117–126 | Cite as

Chronic unpredictable stress exacerbates 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in Swiss albino mice

  • Nida Suhail
  • Nayeem Bilal
  • Shirin Hasan
  • Naheed Banu


Oxidative stress, a pervasive condition induced by stress has been implicated and recognized to be a prominent feature of various pathological states including cancer and their progression. The present study sought to validate the effectiveness of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) on hepatic and renal toxicity in terms of alterations of various in vivo biochemical parameters, oxidative stress markers and the extent of DNA damage in Swiss albino mice. Animals were randomized into different groups based on their exposure to CUS alone, 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) alone (topical), DMBA-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (topical), and exposure to CUS prior to DMBA or DMBA-TPA treatment, and sacrificed after 16 weeks of treatment. Prior exposure to CUS increased the pro-oxidant effect of carcinogen as depicted by significantly compromised levels of antioxidants; superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, reduced glutathione in hepatic and renal tissues accompanied by a significant elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) as compared to DMBA alone or DMBA-TPA treatments. Loss of structural integrity at the cellular level due to stress-induced oxidative damage was demonstrated by significant increases in the hepatic levels of intracellular marker enzymes such as glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase, and significantly reduced levels of uric acid in kidney tissues. The results of DNA damage studies further positively correlated with all the above biochemical measurements. Thus, exposure to physical or psychological stress may significantly enhance the hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic potential of carcinogens through enhanced oxidative stress even if the treatment is topical.


CUS DMBA Hepatotoxicity Nephrotoxicity DNA damage Antioxidants 



Thanks are due to University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi for financial support to the authors (Nida Suhail, Nayeem Bilal, and Shirin Hasan) in the form of a scholarship. The authors are grateful to UGC-SAP, DST-FIST, and Aligarh Muslim University for the facilities.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nida Suhail
    • 1
  • Nayeem Bilal
    • 1
  • Shirin Hasan
    • 1
  • Naheed Banu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryFaculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University (AMU)AligarhIndia

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