Amino acids influence the glucose uptake through GLUT4 in CHO-K1 cells under high glucose conditions
- 352 Downloads
According to studies earlier, amino acids have proven to be antidiabetic, antiglycating, and anticataractogenic. The present study was to explore whether amino acids as mixtures could enhance glucose uptake in CHO-K1 cells specifically. The cells in F-12K1 serum-free medium were exposed to normal (7 mM) and high glucose (12, 17 and 27 mM) in the presence and absence of amino acids mixture (AAM) in varying concentration (2.5, 5 and 10 mM). The mixture 5 and 10 mM AAM increased the 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) uptake at all glucose concentration significantly. There was also a significant increase in the GLUT4 (glucose transporter) translocation as revealed by flow cytometer. Addition of a mixture of amino acids was found to improve cell viability, which got altered by high glucose in the CHO-K1 cells. Amino acids as mixture had a beneficial effect in improving the net utilization of glucose as an additive effect with insulin.
KeywordsAmino acids Glucose uptake GLUT4
This work was supported by a grant from the Department of Science and Technology (DST) (Grant SR/SO/BB-15/2005), Govt. of India, New Delhi. We thank Dr. S. Ramakrishnan, Prof. Emeritus & Dr. K. N. Sulochana, Director, Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Vision Research Foundation, Chennai, for their scientific support. The authors thank Dr. N. Rajagopal for his excellent technical assistance.
Conflicts of interest statement
All the authors state that they have no competing financial interests existing with respect to publication of this work.
- 4.Caro JF, Sinha MK, Raju SM, Ittoop O, Pories WJ, Flickinger EG, Meelheim D, Dohm GL (1987) Insulin receptor kinase in human skeletal muscle from obese subjects with and without noninsulin dependent diabetes. J Clin Invest 1330–1337. doi: 10.1172/JCI112958
- 5.Goodyear LJ, Giorgino F, Sherman LA, Carey J, Smith RJ, Dohm GL (1995) Insulin receptor phosphorylation, insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity are decreased in intact skeletal muscle strips from obese subjects. J Clin Invest 95:2195–2204. doi: 10.1172/JCI117909 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 18.Sulochana KN, Lakshmi S, Punitham R, Arokiasamy T, Sukumar B, Ramakrishnan S (2002) Effect of oral supplementation of free amino acids in type 2 diabetic patients—a pilot clinical trial. Med Sci Monit 8:CR131–CR137Google Scholar
- 21.Srinivasan V, Rajesh M, Sulochana KN, Indra C, Ramakrishnan S (2005) Amino acids differentially regulate insulin receptor tyrosine kinase and phosphatidyl inositol-3-OH-kinase activities in human monocytes exposed to high glucose concentration. Indian J Biochem Biophys 42:13–18Google Scholar
- 25.Chen G, Liu P, Pattar GR, Tackett L, Bhonagiri P, Strawbridge AB, Elmendorf JS (2006) Chromium activates glucose transporter 4 trafficking and enhances insulin-stimulated glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via a cholesterol-dependent mechanism. Mol Endocrinol 20:857–870. doi: 10.1210/me.2005-0255 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 36.Demaegdt H, Smitz L, De Backer JP, Le MT, Bauwens M, Szemenyei E, Toth G, Michotte Y, Vanderheyden P, Vauquelin G (2008) Translocation of the insulin-regulated aminopeptidase to the cell surface: detection by radioligand binding. Br J Pharmacol 154:872–881. doi: 10.1038/bjp.2008.117 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 41.Katome T, Obata T, Matsushima R, Masuyama N, Cantley LC, Gotoh Y, Kishi K, Shiota H, Ebina Y (2003) Use of RNA interference-mediated gene silencing and adenoviral overexpression to elucidate the roles of AKT/protein kinase B isoforms in insulin actions. J Biol Chem 278:28312–28323. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M302094200 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 61.Ralph DM, Robinson SR, Campbell MS, Bishop GM (2010) Histidine, cystine, glutamine and threonine collectively protect astrocytes from the toxicity of zinc. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.05.023