Dietary fat and apolipoprotein genotypes modulate plasma lipoprotein levels in Brazilian elderly women
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Studies show that genetic polymorphisms in apolipoproteins, which are in charge of lipid transport, predispose to atherogenic dyslipidemia. This study aimed to investigate the impact of apolipoprotein E, A5, and B genotypes and dietary intake on lipid profile in a sample of elderly women in Brazil. Two hundred and fifty-two women (60 years or older) living in the outskirts of the Brazilian Federal District underwent clinical and laboratory assessments to characterize glycemic and lipidemic variables, and also to exclude confounding factors (smoking, drinking, hormone replacement, cognitive impairment, physical activity). Three-day food records were used to determine usual dietary intake, whereas genotypic evaluations were in accordance to established methodologies. Genotype frequencies were consistent with the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Prior to adjustment, individuals carrying the ε2 allele showed higher serum levels of triglycerides (P < 0.05) and VLDL (P < 0.005) compared to ε4 carriers, whereas LDL levels were considerably elevated in ε4 compared to ε2 carriers. In the presence of high intake of total fat or a low ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid, ε4 carriers lost protection against hypertriglyceridemia. There was no association of the apolipoprotein A5 and B genotypes with lipidemic levels independently of the fat intake regimen. Results are suggestive of a dysbetalipoproteinemic-like phenotype in postmenopausal women, with remarkable gene–diet interaction.
KeywordsHypertriglyceridemia Dysbetalipoproteinemia Genetic polymorphism Food intake Fatty acids Gender Older adult
The authors thank dieticians Cristiane Urcina Joanna Oliveira Lima, Érika Beatriz Lopes Tavares, Fabíola Reis Sousa, Fernanda Cristina de Jesus Colares-Bento, and Sarah Ricardo Peres da Silveira for gathering nutritional data and assuring adherence to the food registration procedure. Research supported by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development—CNPq (Grants 484318/2006-3 and 402699/2007-6), by the Federal District Foundation for Research Development—FAPDF (Grants 193.000.309/2007 and 193.000.449/2008) and by the University of Brasília—UnB (DPP/UnB Grant # 01/2009). R.S. Paula received a fellowship from CAPES, and V.C. Sousa received a fellowship from UCB.
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