Capsaicin alleviates the imbalance in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and tumor markers during experimental lung tumorigenesis
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Lung cancer is currently a leading cause of death all over the world. Environmental risk factors, particularly genotoxic chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), are likely to account for a much higher mortality. Xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes are potentially chief determinants in both the susceptibility to the mutagenic effects of chemical carcinogens and in the response of tumors to chemotherapy. The well-known carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) of PAH family was given orally (50 mg/kg body weight) to induce lung cancer in Swiss albino mice. B(a)P induction altered the levels of cytochromes (P450, b5), activities of phase I biotransformation enzymes (NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase and epoxide hydrolase), phase II enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase, UDP-glucuronyl transferase and DT-diaphorase), and the levels of serum tumor markers. Treatment with capsaicin (CAP) (10 mg/kg body weight) to the lung carcinoma mice restored back the activities of phase I and II biotransformation enzymes and the levels of tumor markers to near normalcy. The above findings were substantiated by immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analysis of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) in the lung tissues. Our present study unravels that CAP can effectively detoxify the carcinogens which discloses its anti-carcinogenic effect during experimental lung cancer.
KeywordsBenzo(a)pyrene Lung cancer Capsaicin Phase I and II detoxification enzymes Tumor markers
First author P. Anandakumar wishes to thank University Grants Commission, New Delhi, India for the financial assistance in the form of Junior Research fellowship. The authors S. Kamaraj and S. Jagan wishes to thank ICMR, CSIR, New Delhi, India, respectively, for the financial assistance in the form of Senior Research fellowship. The authors are thankful to Dr. John J. Stegeman, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts, and Dr. Harry V. Gelboin, National Cancer Institute, Maryland for their kind gift of CYP1A1 primary mouse monoclonal antibody.
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