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A significant part of the genome consists of genes that encode proteins with the ability to catalyze the transfer of phosphate to protein substrates thereby altering their biological properties and function. This knowledge has generated considerable interest in the study of these molecules (i.e., protein kinases) in health and their altered function in disease. Indeed, a major current endeavor is to attempt to identify how the functions of protein kinases are altered in disease, and pursuant to that also to find means of targeting these enzymes to alter their expression or function for therapeutic interventions. In this context, protein kinase CK2 has emerged as an important player by virtue of its various unique characteristics in cell function. CK2 (adopted acronym for the former inappropriate name casein kinase II) is a protein serine/threonine kinase that is among the most highly conserved molecules, and is present in every cell at a strictly regulated level depending on the cell...