Interaction of SIV/SHIV infection and morphine on plasma oxidant/antioxidant balance in macaque
A homeostatic balance exists between the cellular generation of oxidant species and endogenous antioxidants under normal physiological conditions. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is known to affect this balance causing oxidative stress. However, the interaction of HIV infection with a substance abuse on cellular oxidant/antioxidant system is sparse. This study was designed in order to investigate the interactive effect of morphine abuse and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/ Simian Human Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV/SHIV) infection on plasma oxidant/antioxidant balance in rhesus macaques. Six rhesus macaques adapted to morphine dependence (20 weeks) along with three controls were infected with mixture of SHIVKU-1B, SHIV89.6P, and SIV17E-Fr. Plasma samples from morphine-dependent and control macaques were analyzed for an array of oxidative stress indices after 16 weeks of infection. Morphine-dependence significantly increased plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-isoprostane levels (8-fold and 2-fold), but these animals showed higher MDA and 8-isoprostane levels after viral infection (18-fold and 4-fold) which was directly correlated with increase in viral load and decline in CD4+ cells. Plasma glutathione (GSH) level depleted (55%) with morphine dependence that was further depleted (25%) by the infection. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were increased by 30% and 110%, respectively with morphine dependence, but that was decreased by the infection. Catalase (CAT) activity declined (25%) with morphine dependence that was further declined by infection. Our results clearly suggest that morphine interaction with SIV/SHIV infection causes higher oxidative tissue injury that might have implication in the pathogenesis of AIDS in morphine-dependent macaques.
KeywordsAIDS Antioxidant Oxidative stress Morphine Plasma SIV/SHIV
This study was supported in part by grants from National Institute of Drug Abuse (DA015013) and National Institute on Alcohol and Alcoholism (AA015045).
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