Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

, Volume 288, Issue 1–2, pp 37–46 | Cite as

Radioprotective properties of apple polyphenols: An in vitro study

  • Pankaj Chaudhary
  • Sandeep Kumar Shukla
  • I. Prem Kumar
  • I. Namita
  • Farhat Afrin
  • Rakesh Kumar Sharma


Present study was undertaken to evaluate the radioprotective ability of total polyphenols extracted from edible portion (epicarp and mesocarp) of apple. Prior administration of apple polyphenols to murine thymocytes significantly countered radiation induced DNA damage (evaluated by alkaline halo assay) and cell death (trypan blue exclusion method) in a dose dependent manner maximally at a concentration of 2 and 0.2 mg/ml respectively. Apple polyphenols in a dose dependent fashion inhibited both radiation or Fenton reaction mediated 2-deoxyribose (2-DR) degradation indicating its ability to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and this activity was found to be unaltered in presence of simulated gastric juice. Similarly apple polyphenols in a dose dependent fashion scavenged DPPH radicals (maximum 69% at 1 mg/ml), superoxide anions (maximum 88% at 2 mg/ml), reduced Fe3 + to Fe2 + (maximum at 1 mg/ml) and inhibited Fenton reaction mediated lipid peroxidation (maximum 66% at 1.5 mg/ml) further establishing its antioxidative properties. Studies carried out with plasmid DNA revealed the ability of apple polyphenols to inhibit radiation induced single as well as double strand breaks. The results clearly indicate that apple polyphenols have significant potential to protect cellular system from radiation induced damage and ability to scavenge free radicals might be playing an important role in its radioprotective manifestation.


alkaline halo apple polyphenols radioprotection reactive oxygen species 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Riley PA: Free radicals in biology: oxidative stress and the effects of ionizing radiation. Int J Radiat Biol 65: 27–33, 1994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sies H: Antioxidants in disease, mechanisms and therapy (Academic Press, New York). 1996Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Von Sonntag C: The chemical basis of radiation biology (Taylor and Francis, London). 1987Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Turner ND, Braby LA, Ford J, Lupton JR: Opportunities for Nutritional Amelioration of Radiation-Induced Cellular Damage. Nutrition 18: 904–912, 2002PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bump EA, Malakkar K: Radioprotectors, Chemical, Biological, and Clinical Perspectives. Edited by Bump EA and Malakkar K. CRC Press Boca Raton, 1998Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Moulder JE: Pharmacological intervention to prevent or ameliorate chronic radiation injuries. Semin Radiat Oncol 13: 73–84, 2003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Weiss JF, Kumar KS, Walden TL, Neta R, Landaur M, Clark EP: Advances in radioprotection through use of combined agents regimens. Int J Radiat Bio 57: 709, 1990Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Orditura M, De Vita F, Belli A, Ciarimella F, Musico M, Ferrigno A, Formato R, Abbate G, Diadema MR, Catalana G: Efficacy and safety profile of amifostine in the pre operative combined therapy of esophageal cancer patients. Oncol Rep 7: 397–400, 2000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Weiss JF, Landauer MR: Protection against ionizing radiation by antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals. Toxicol: 189 1–20, 2003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Goel HC, Prasad J, Sharma AK, Singh B: Antitumor and radioprotective action of Podophyllum hexandrum. Ind J Exp Biol 36: 583–587, 1998Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Prem Kumar I, Goel HC: Iron chelation and related properties of P.hexandrum; A possible role in radioprotection. Ind J Exp Biol 39: 1002–1006, 2000Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Uma Devi P, Ganasoundari A: Radioprotective effects of leaf extract of Indian medicinal plant, Ocimum sanctum. Indian J Exp Biol 37: 262, 1995Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hertog MGL, Feskens EJM, Hollman PCH, Katan MB, Kromhout D: Dietary antioxidant flavanoids and risk of coronary Heart disease: the Zutphen elderly study. Lancet 342: 1007–1011, 1993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cornwell T, Cochick W, Raskin I: Dietary phytoestrogens and health. Phytochemistry 65: 995–1016. 2004PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Aprikian O, Duclos V, Guyot S, Besson C, Manach C, Bernalier A, Morand C, Remesy C, Demigne C: apple pectin and a polyphenols-rich concentrate are more effective together than separately on cecal fermentations and plasma lipids in rats. J Nutr 133: 1860–1865, 2003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Eberhardt MV, Lee CY, Liu RH: Antioxidant activity of fresh apples. Nature 405: 903–904, 2000PubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kern M, Tjaden Z, Ngiewih Y, Puppel N, Will F Dietrich H, Pahlke G, Marko D: Inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor in apple juice extract. Mol Nutr Food Res 49: 317–328, 2005PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Schieber A, Keller P, Streker P, Klaiber I, Carle R: Detection of isorhamnetin glycosides in extracts of apples (Malus domestica cv. “Brettacher”) by HPLC-PDA and HPLC-APCI-MS/MS. Phytochem Anal 13(2): 87–94, 2002PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Spinks JWT, Woods RJ: An Introduction to Radiation chemistry, 2nd edn (New York: Wiley), 1976Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Silivina B, Lotito, Balz, Frei: Relevance of apple polyphenols as antioxidant in human plasma: contrasting in vitro and in vivo effects. Free Rad Biol Med 36: 201–211, 2003Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Singleton VL, Rossi JA: Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybidic- phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am J EnolVitic 16: 144–158, 1965Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gutteridge JMC: Thiobarbituric acid reactivity following iron dependent free radical damage to aminoacids and carbohydrates. FEBS Letters128: 343–346, 1988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kakkar P, Das B, Vishwanathan PN: A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase. Indian J Biophys Biochem 21: 130–133, 1984Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shimada K, Fujikawa K, Yahara K, Nakamura T: Antioxidative properties of xanthan on the autoxidation of soyabean oil in cyclodextrin emulsion. J Agri Food Chem 40: 945–948, 1992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yen GC, Duh PD: Antioxidative properties of methanolic extracts from peanut hulls. J. Am Oil Chem Soci 70: 383–386, 1993Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Beuge JA, Aust SD: Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Meth Enzymol 52C: 302, 1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Thibodeau PA, Kocsis-Bederd S, Courteau J, Niyonsenga T, Paquette B: Thiols can either enhance or suppress DNA damage induction by catecholestrogens. Free Rad Biol Med 30: 62–73, 2001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sestil P, Gudarelli A, Marina D, Cantoni O: Quercetin prevents DNA single strand breakage and cytotoxicity caused by tert butyl hydroperoxide: Free radical scavenging versus metal chelating mechanism. Free Rad Biol Med 25: 196–200, 1998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ross GM: Induction of cell death by radiotherapy. Endocrine-Related Cancer 6: 41–44, 1999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Goel HC, Prem Kumar I, Rana SVS: Free radical scavenging and metal chelation by Tinospora cordifolia, a possible role in radioprotection. Indian J Exp Biol 40: 727–734, 2002PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Goel HC, Prem Kumar I, Samanta N, Rana SVS: Induction of DNA-protein cross-links by Hippophae rhamnoids: Implications in radioprotection and cytotoxicity. Mol Cell Biochem 245: 57–67, 2003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Graziani G, Argenio AD, Tuccillo C, Loguercio C, Ritieni A, Morisco F, Vecchioblanco Cdel, Fogliano F, Romano M: Apple polyphenol extracts prevent damage to human gastric epithelial cells in vitro and to rat gastric mucosa in vivo. Gut 54: 193–200, 2005PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Stevens RG, Kaluworf DR: Iron, radiation and cancer. Environ Health Perspect 87: 291–300, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pankaj Chaudhary
    • 1
  • Sandeep Kumar Shukla
    • 1
  • I. Prem Kumar
    • 1
  • I. Namita
    • 1
  • Farhat Afrin
    • 3
  • Rakesh Kumar Sharma
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Radiation BiologyInstitute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied SciencesDelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of RadiopharmaceuticalsInstitute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied SciencesDelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of BiotechnologyJamia Hamdard UniversityNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied SciencesDelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations