Materials Science

, Volume 51, Issue 4, pp 589–597 | Cite as

Study of the Characteristics of AL + 5 wt.% TiO2 + 6 wt.% GR Hybrid P/M Composite Powders Prepared by the Process of Ball Milling


This paper is an attempt to understand the characteristics of Al + TiO2 + Gr hybrid ball-milled composite powders, which would probably have extensive applications in the near future. Aluminum with titanium dioxide (TiO2) and graphite (Gr) powders was ball-milled in order to get a composition like: Al + 0% TiO2, Al + 5% TiO2, Al + 5% TiO2 + 2% Gr, Al + 5% TiO2 + 4% Gr and Al + 5% TiO2 + 6% Gr. The grain size, lattice space, lattice constant, stress, strain, dislocation density, and volume of the unit cell were calculated according to the data of X-Ray diffraction analysis of milled powders. Compressibility tests were performed in a hardened steel die under pressures between 100 to 500 MPa to determine Al with 5 wt.% TiO2 and 2 & 4 wt.% of Gr powder mixtures. For understanding the compaction behavior of aluminum-based hybrid composites reinforced with TiO2 and Gr particles under various applied pressure conditions, the experimental research was realized by using several powder compaction equations. The microstructure analysis is reported for the Al + 5% TiO2 + 6% Gr composite.

Key words

ball milling synthesis composite powders ball milling 


  1. 1.
    M. Rahimian, N. Parvin, and N. Ehsani, “The effect of production parameters on microstructure and wear resistance of powder metallurgy Al–Al2O3 composite,” Mater. Design, 32, 1031–1038 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Sivasankaran, K. Sivaprasad, R. Narayanasamy, and V. Kumar Iyer, “An investigation on flowability and compressibility of AA 6061 100−x-x wt.% TiO2 micro and nanocomposite powder prepared by blending and mechanical alloying,” Powder Technol., 201, 70–82 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. Ravindran, K. Manisekar, P. Narayanasamy, N. Selvakumar, and R. Narayanasamy, “Application of factorial techniques to study the wear of Al hybrid composites with graphite addition,” Mater. Design, 39, 42–54 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    F. Akhlaghi and S. A. Pelaseyyed, “Characterization of aluminum/graphite particulate composites synthesized using a novel method termed “in-situ powder metallurgy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 385, 258–266 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Adamiak, “Mechanical alloying for fabrication of aluminum matrix composite powders with Ti–Al intermetallics reinforcement,” J. Arch. Mater. Manufact. Eng., 31, 191–196 (2008).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. Z. Razavi, H. R. Hafizpour, and A. Simchi, “An investigation on the compressibility of aluminum/nanoalumina composite powder prepared by blending and mechanical milling,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 454455, 89–98 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    V. Viswanathan, T. Laha, K. Balani, A. Agarwal, and S. Seal, “Challenges and advances in nanocomposite processing techniques,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R, 54, 121–285 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. B. Fogagnolo, F. Velasco, M. H. Robert, and J. M. Torralba, “Effect of mechanical alloying on the morphology, microstructure and properties of aluminum matrix composite powders,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 342, 131–143 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. M. Zebarjad and S. A. Sajjadi, “Microstructure evaluation of Al–Al2O3 composite produced by mechanical alloying method,” Mater. Design, 27, 684–688 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    B. Prabhu, C. Suryanarayana, L. Ana, and R. Vaidyanathan, “Synthesis and characterization of high volume fraction Al–Al2O3 nanocomposite powders by high-energy milling,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 425, No. 2, 192–200 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Sivasankaran, K. Sivaprasad, R. Narayanasamy, and P. V. Satyanarayana, “X-ray peak broadening analysis of AA 6061100−x−x wt. % Al2O3 nanocomposite prepared by mechanical alloying,” Mater. Charact., 62, 661–672 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Ravichandran, A. N. Sait, and V. Anandakrishnan, “Synthesis and forming behavior of aluminum-based hybrid powder metallurgic composites,” Int. J. Min. Met. Mater., 21, 181–189 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. H. Shin, H. J. Choi, and D. H. Bae, “The structure and properties of 2024 aluminum composites reinforced with TiO2 nanoparticles,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 607, 605–610 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. Ghia and I. N. Popescu, “Experimental research and compaction behavior modeling of aluminum based composites reinforced with silicon carbide particles,” Comp. Mater. Sci., 64, 136–140 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. Hafeez and V. Senthilkumar, “Consolidation behavior of mechanically alloyed aluminum based nanocomposites reinforced with nanoscale Y2O3/Al2O3 particles,” Mater. Charact., 62, 1235–1249 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Romankov, Y. Hayasaka, I. V. Shchetinin, J.-M. Yoon, and S. V. Komarov, “Fabrication of Cu–SiC surface composite under ball collisions,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 257, 5032–5036 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Ravichandran
    • 1
  • Vs. Vidhya
    • 2
  • V. Anandakrishanan
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringKings College of EngineeringPudukkottaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryChendhuran College of Engineering and TechnologyPudukkottaiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Production EngineeringNational Institute of TechnologyTiruchirappalliIndia

Personalised recommendations