An outcome-based dynamic performance management approach to collaborative governance in crime control: insights from Malaysia

Abstract

The paper analyzes Malaysia’s experience in crime control. It offers insights on how a whole-of-government perspective, underpinned by a dynamic outcome-based performance management system, or DPM, supports governments in bringing about progress in crime reduction. Although not exhaustive of all factors contributing to crime control, the paper argues that DPM can make collaboration in designing and implementing policies for crime control more effective, by enabling policy-makers frame causal links between strategic resources, performance drivers and outcomes. The feedback-loops underlying the crime-control system’s behavior should be governed in a way that enables policy-makers to build up a substantial and consistent endowment of strategic resources to affect sustainable outcomes. The deployment of these resources should help achieve—by affecting performance drivers, outputs, and intermediate outcomes—the ultimate outcome in crime control, namely, public perception of safety. The DPM approach applied to collaborative governance in crime control also suggests that policy-makers should build up and deploy strategic resources (most of which are intangible), such as political and administrative commitment, citizen participation, span of accountability, leadership, transparency, and trust. The mode of implementation can also influence success in crime control. Accordingly, a blend of top-down and bottom-up implementation and a culture of collaboration should also expedite crime reduction.

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Fig. 1

(Source: Bianchi 2016, p. 73)

Fig. 2

(Source: adapted from Bianchi and Williams 2015, p. 402)

Fig. 3

Source: index-crime data from data.gov.my (https://cilisos.my/are-malaysian-crime-rates-really-going-down-we-take-a-closer-look-at-the-statistics/)

Fig. 4

(Source: plotted with data from data.gov.my; numbeo.com; EPU 2018; PEMANDU annual reports (various issues); National Transformation Report 2017)

Fig. 5
Fig. 6

Notes

  1. 1.

    See Blumstein (2002).

  2. 2.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_and_dependencies_by_number_of_police_officers.

  3. 3.

    PEMANDU was disbanded in early 2017. Its structure and functions was taken over by the Civil Service Delivery Unit, Economic Planning Unit, Prime Minister’s Department.

  4. 4.

    Crime-index consists of 14 crimes: Violent crimes murder, rape, assault, armed gang robbery, gang robbery without firearms, armed robbery, and robbery without firearms. Property thefts robbery, car theft, motorcycle theft, commercial vehicle theft, snatch theft, and break-ins.

  5. 5.

    Both the need of synthesis and selective analysis led us to show in this simplified example of a DPM chart the change in crime as a main intermediate outcome affecting trust in police and community fear of victimization. However, we acknowledge that fear of crime has multiple possible sources of influence (e.g. place of residence, socio-economic status) which have not been intentionally included in this example. The purpose we pursue in such analysis is not to develop a detailed model to manage crime reduction. It is, rather, to illustrate how the DPM framework can be useful in supporting collaborative governance through an outcome-view in crime control.

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Xavier, J.A., Bianchi, C. An outcome-based dynamic performance management approach to collaborative governance in crime control: insights from Malaysia. J Manag Gov 24, 1089–1114 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10997-019-09486-w

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Keywords

  • Dynamic performance management
  • Community outcomes
  • Crime control
  • Malaysia
  • Performance management and delivery unit
  • Collaborative governance